In the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling Monday on pay-for-delay settlements in the pharmaceutical industry – in which a brand-name drugmaker pays generic rivals to drop challenges to its patent, thus assuring its monopoly – five justices agreed with the Federal Trade Commission that the key question isn’t whether pay-for-delay deals exceed the scope of the brand-maker’s patent. Courts cannot simply rubber-stamp such settlements as presumptively legal, the majority said in FTC v. Actavis. But nor can they assume that pay-for-delay settlements are illegal by their very nature. Instead, according to the majority, trial courts must conduct a “rule of reason” analysis to determine whether reverse-payment settlements violate antitrust law.
Justice Clarence Thomas of the U.S. Supreme Court doesn’t come out and say so in his straightforward, rhetoric-free, 19-page opinion for a unanimous court in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, but the takeaway from the ruling is not only that human genes are not patentable in and of themselves but that the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals isn’t very good at interpreting patent-eligibility under Section 101 of the Patent Act. As the Supreme Court decision notes, the Federal Circuit panel that ruled Myriad has the right to composition patents on genes associated with breast cancer disagreed on the rationale. One judge said that isolated genes are chemically distinct from the molecules found in nature. Another cited longstanding Patent and Trademark Office policy on gene patentability. The third disagreed with both explanations. So too did the entire Supreme Court, which said the dispositive question is whether the purported invention is created or found in nature. Genes are found in nature, the court said, and thus not patent-eligible.
Remember the fight over a mandatory shareholder arbitration bylaw adopted by the board of CommonWealth, an embattled $8 billion real estate investment trust? As I told you last month, when a couple of activist hedge funds sued in Maryland state court to invalidate the 2009 bylaw as part of their hostile takeover bid for the REIT, Baltimore Circuit Court Judge Audrey Carrionruled that CommonWealth’s mandatory shareholder arbitration clause is enforceable. The hedge funds, which had acquired their shares after the bylaw was enacted, subsequently dropped the suit and agreed to arbitrate their claims that CommonWealth’s board had breached its fiduciary duty. But in the meantime, shareholders whose ownership predated enactment of the mandatory arbitration bylaw picked up the fight to invalidate the provision.
Is there any private equity investor with a more flamboyant personal style than Lynn Tilton, CEO of the distressed debt private equity firm Patriarch Partners? Tilton is Yale- and Columbia-educated and Wall Street-trained, but here’s the first impression she made in a 2011 interview with New York magazine: “Tilton’s lipstick is frosty pink, her eyelashes are long and inky black, her hair is Barbie-doll blonde, with curls spilling over cleavage that is invariably visible, invariably tan, invariably accentuated by a diamond necklace, and invariably supported by a tight-fitting garment made by one of her favorite designers. Today she has chosen a Roberto Cavalli miniskirt accessorized with spike-heeled suede boots and a fur-trimmed cape.”
Sheldon Adelson, the billionaire atop the Las Vegas Sands casino empire, must surely hold the unofficial U.S. record for appearances as a libel and defamation plaintiff. I’ve written before about Adelson’s quick trigger for libel claims, but he outdid himself this February when he sued Kate O’Keefe, a reporter for The Wall Street Journal in Hong Kong, over a December 2012 piece in which she and a co-author referred to him as “a scrappy, foul-mouthed billionaire from working-class Dorchester, Mass.” Adelson took exception to being described as “foul-mouthed,” but his underlying objection may have been to the premise of the article, which drew a contrast between Adelson and the equally abrasive but more polished former Sands China CEO Steven Jacobs, with whom Adelson has been engaged in litigation over the company’s casino operations in Macau. The Journal reporter whom Adelson sued in Hong Kong had previously written stories about Jacobs’s claim – asserted in legal filings in his Nevada wrongful termination action against the Sands – that Adelson had condoned a “prostitution strategy” at the Macau casino. Adelson, who subsequently sued Jacobs for defamation in Miami-Dade Circuit Court, seems to have regarded The Wall Street Journal as a favored recipient of leaks from his archenemy Jacobs.
The biggest news to come out of Tuesday’s ongoing hearing to evaluate Bank of America’s proposed $8.5 billion settlement with investors in 530 Countrywide mortgage-backed securities trusts is that the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency gave Bank of America clearance to put Countrywide into bankruptcy if Countrywide’s liabilities threatened BofA’s existence. Or at least that’s what Kathy Patrick of Gibbs & Bruns, who represents 22 institutional investors that negotiated the proposed deal with BofA and Countrywide MBS trustee Bank of New York Mellon, said her clients were told by BofA Chief Risk Officer Terry Laughlin in 2011 as they tried to come to terms on a settlement of investor claims that Countrywide breached representations and warranties about the underlying mortgage loans. To my knowledge, Patrick’s assertion – which was intended to support her argument that MBS investors risked getting much less than $8.5 billion for their put-back claims – is, if true, the first tangible indication that Bank of America ever did more than hypothesize bankruptcy for Countrywide.
To say that the hearing to evaluate Bank of America’s proposed $8.5 billion breach of contract settlement with investors in Countrywide mortgage-backed securities got off to a slow start would be something of an understatement. In a courtroom so crowded that New York State Supreme Court Justice Barbara Kapnick repeatedly admonished observers to clear a path to the door, the judge heard hours of pretrial motions, many on issues she regarded as already settled. In particular, objectors to the settlement – led by AIG, several Federal Home Loan Banks and other assorted pension and investment funds – told Kapnick that they should not be forced to proceed with opening statements until they’ve had a chance to take depositions based on privileged communications between Bank of New York Mellon, the Countrywide MBS trustee, and its lawyers at Mayer Brown. Kapnick ordered the documents produced late last month, and AIG counsel Daniel Reilly of Reilly Pozner said it wouldn’t be fair to begin a hearing to determine whether BNY Mellon made a reasonable decision to agree to the $8.5 billion settlement – which resolves potential claims by 530 trusts that Countrywide breached representations and warranties about underlying mortgage loans – until objectors have quizzed witnesses on the confidential material.
Remember the motion by California’s public employees’ retirement system to disqualify Winston & Strawn from representing the bond insurer National Public Finance (the muni bond wing of MBIA) in the Chapter 9 bankruptcies of two California cities, Stockton and San Bernardino? Calpers’s lawyers at K&L Gatesargued last month that under California law, Winston must automatically be disqualified from representing National because it hired a K&L partner who had represented the pension fund, which is in direct conflict with the bond insurer over priority of payouts by the bankrupt municipalities.