In Tuesday’s ruling that Detroit is eligible for federal bankruptcy protection, U.S. bankruptcy judge Steven Rhodes set crucial precedent on a municipality’s right to cut pension benefits through the Chapter 9 process. Michigan’s state constitution, like those of many other states, specifically protects the pension rights of public employees. Before Detroit even filed for Chapter 9 in July, some of its pensioners went to state court to block the bankruptcy, arguing that it’s a violation of the state constitution to tamper with their benefits. Rhodes squelched that litigation and asserted his federal-court jurisdiction, but retirees and unions continued their challenge to the city’s right to meddle with their pensions, just as California’s vast public pension fund, Calpers, has relentlessly resisted any suggestion that the bankrupt cities of Stockton and San Bernardino might reduce their pension obligations. In a first-ever ruling on the impairment of pension obligations in a Chapter 9 proceeding, Judge Rhodes held Tuesday that neither the Contracts Clause nor the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution prohibits Detroit from cutting pension benefits, even if those benefits are protected in the state constitution.
Last month, the U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments in Hood v. AU Optronics, the case that will determine whether consumer suits by state attorneys general must be litigated in federal court under the Class Action Fairness Act or may be tried in the plaintiffs-friendly confines of state court. I’ve been harping on these AG cases, known as parens patriae suits, because they’re increasingly the most viable way to hold corporations accountable in court to consumers, thanks to the Supreme Court’s predilection for arbitration and skepticism about class actions. An array of pro-business groups seized the opportunity of the AU Optronics case – in which the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals split with several other federal circuits and held that parens patriae suits are removable to federal court under CAFA – to ask the Supreme Court to rein in state AGs, just as the justices last term curbed class action lawyers who tried to stipulate their way out of federal court.
Ever heard the old adage that when your only tool is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail? The law firm Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher has no shortage of tools, but among its most powerful is a premier appellate practice that in the last few years has won landmark rulings from the U.S. Supreme Court in Hollingsworth v. Perry, the California same-sex marriage case; Wal-Mart v. Dukes, which raised due process defenses against class certification; and Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, the infamous corporate free speech case. When your litigators are expert at winning constitutionality arguments, an awful lot of problems seem to have constitutional dimensions.
On this Thanksgiving Eve, as we recall the generosity of the Wampanoags who helped early Bay Colony settlers learn how to survive in the New World, securities class action lawyers may want to spare a thanks or two for 12 members of the Ute tribe as well. Why? Because if the U.S. Supreme Court ends up eliminating fraud-on-the-market reliance in the Halliburton case to be heard later this term, one of the few remaining avenues for securities class actions is open because of a case those Utes brought to the Supreme Court back in 1971.
Satire, according to an opinion Tuesday by the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in a defamation suit against Esquire magazine, is hard to define. But like U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart contemplating hard-core pornography (in his oft-quoted concurrence in the 1964 case Jacobellis v. State of Ohio), the appeals court knows it when it sees it. A three-judge appellate panel upheld the dismissal of claims by two prominent members of the ‘birther’ movement, ruling that an Esquire blog post reporting the withdrawal of a book purporting to expose the falsity of President Obama’s birth certificate satisfied the elusive criteria for satire, even if some of the blog post’s readers didn’t get the joke.
On Wednesday, when most people are calculating how early they can slip out of work and begin their Thanksgiving festivities, an awful lot of high-priced New York lawyers will be fighting for seats at 27 Madison Avenue, where the New York Appellate Division, First Department, hears appeals. Billions of dollars of claims for breaches of representations and warranties on mortgage-backed securities hang on what the state appeals court decides about the time limits for these suits. Does the clock start ticking when the securities are issued and representations about underlying mortgage loans take effect? Or does New York’s six-year statute of limitations begin running only when the MBS seller refuses to repurchase loans that breach its contractual assurances? A five-judge appellate panel will confront the issue Wednesday in a case called Ace Securities v. Deutsche Bank Structured Products. The courtroom should be packed with lawyers and clients on both sides of New York’s sprawling MBS put-back litigation docket, who are hoping for clues about what the appeals court will decide.
Oh, those greedy contingency-fee lawyers. Is there nothing they won’t do to wring a few million bucks in fees from corporate defendants blamelessly and selflessly going about their business? Dish Network’s majority shareholder, Charles Ergen, and his friends and colleagues on the board performed a great service for the company’s minority shareholders when they secured Dish’s spot as the stalking-horse bidder for LightSquared spectrum licenses. Sure, Ergen had his own personal interest in the LightSquared deal because he’s the biggest creditor of the bankruptcy company. But Dish’s board went above and beyond Nevada’s statutory requirements for transactions in which a director has a conflicting financial interest. It appointed a special transaction committee of independent directors, who hired their own lawyers and financial advisors. With help from Ergen, his personal lawyers and Dish managers, the independent committee came up with a $2.2 billion bid, which the board voted to approve and the bankruptcy judge overseeing LightSquared’s Chapter 11 subsequently deemed the leading offer in the LightSquared auction process.
The basic scenario described by U.S. District Judge Paul Gardephe of Manhattan in an opinion made public on Wednesday should sound familiar to every white-collar defense lawyer out there. A company, in this case, the hedge fund D.B. Zwirn, falls under scrutiny, here for allegedly diverting investors’ money into boondoggles like a corporate jet. The company hires lawyers (Schulte Roth & Zabel and, later, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher) to investigate the allegations. The lawyers prowl through documents and question internal witnesses. Eager to appear cooperative, the company volunteers to present its lawyers’ findings to regulators. And after the presentation, the Securities and Exchange Commission places blame squarely in the lap of a particular corporate official, here former Zwirn CFO Perry Gruss.
Alex Kozinski, Chief Judge of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals is known for (among other things) his intellect, his libertarian leanings and his sharp writing style. I appeared last year on a panel with Kozinski and can attest to his charm and humor. But when Kozinski uses his wit against you, it stings. Just ask lawyers at Capstone Law and Sedgwick, who had the bad luck to negotiate the settlement of a class action in which Kozinski is a class member. That would have been fine if Kozinski were a satisfied client. He’s not, and as you can see from the brief he and his wife, Marcy Tiffany, filed last week in opposition to final approval of the settlement, Kozinski spares neither side.
Is this timing merely a coincidence? On Friday, JPMorgan Chase and the Houston law firm Gibbs & Bruns announced that they had reached a $4.5 billion settlement to resolve allegations that the bank breached representations and warranties to private investors in 330 JPMorgan and Bear Stearns mortgage-backed securities trusts. Gibbs & Bruns negotiated the JPMorgan settlement on behalf of 21 major institutional investors, including BlackRock, Pimco, Goldman Sachs and MetLife. Two days after the JPMorgan announcement, Kathy Patrick of Gibbs appeared in New York State Supreme Court to make her closing argument in support of her clients’ previous deal, an $8.5 billion settlement with Bank of America that has been held up for 2-1/2 years by a small group of Countrywide MBS investors who object to the deal. Will Patrick be back in court in 2016 to defend the JPMorgan settlement?