Opinion

Alison Frankel

The last, best chance for besieged bank defendants

Alison Frankel
Jul 10, 2014 20:51 UTC

Goldman Sachs has a little more than two months for a miracle to happen.

Otherwise, on Sept. 29, the bank will go to trial in federal court in Manhattan against the Federal Housing Finance Agency to defend claims that Goldman deceived Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac about the quality of the mortgage-backed securities it was peddling before the financial crash.

For defendants in the FHFA litigation, trying to explain to jurors — and to a deeply skeptical judge — that you’re not responsible for woefully deficient securities is so unappealing a prospect that 15 other big banks have coughed up a collective $15 billion to Fannie and Freddie’s conservator. Only Goldman and three other banks have stuck out three years of lopsided litigation in which U.S. District Judge Denise Cote has consistently ruled against them on matters large and small.

These four holdouts have only one possible advantage over the defendants that have already capitulated: the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling last month in an environmental case called CTS Corporation v. Waldburger.

The day that decision came down, I pointed out that it was good news for securities defendants because it cast doubt on the timeliness of fraud claims by the Federal Housing Finance Agency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the National Credit Union Administration.

Waldburger addressed whether Congress extended state-law statutes of repose along with statutes of limitations when it passed a federal environmental cleanup law in 1980. (Both of those set time limits for when injury suits must be filed, but the statute of limitations depends on such factors as when the injury was discovered and whether the parties have agreed to stop the clock. The statute of repose, by contrast, is generally longer but sets an absolute time bar on a defendant’s potential liability.)

Can banks force clients to litigate, not arbitrate?

Alison Frankel
Apr 3, 2014 20:38 UTC

If you are a customer of a big bank — let’s say a merchant unhappy about the fees you’re being charged to process credit card transactions — good luck trying to bring claims in federal court when you’re subject to an arbitration provision. As you probably recall, in last term’s opinion in American Express v. Italian Colors, the U.S. Supreme Court continued its genuflection at the altar of the Federal Arbitration Act, holding definitively that if you’ve signed an agreement requiring you to arbitrate your claims, you’re stuck with it even if you can’t afford to vindicate your statutory rights via individual arbitration.

But what if you’re a bank customer who wants to go to arbitration — and, in a weird role-reversal, the bank is insisting that you must instead bring a federal district court suit? Will courts show the same deference to arbitration when a plaintiff, rather than a defendant, is invoking the right to arbitrate and not litigate?

On Friday, the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals will hear a rare tandem argument in two cases that present the question of whether bank clients have the right to arbitrate their claims even though they’ve signed contracts with forum selection clauses directing disputes to federal court. Believe it or not, the 2nd Circuit will be the third federal appellate court to answer this question, which has divided its predecessors. In January 2013, the 4th Circuit ruled that a UBS client may proceed to arbitration, but on Friday, the 9th Circuit held that a Goldman Sachs customer who agreed to a nearly identical forum selection clause must sue in federal court. To add to the confusion, the 9th Circuit panel was split, which led the majority to call the case “a close question.”

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