The three judges who heard the Justice Department’s appeal in a case called United States v. Ali Shaygan knew full well how consequential their ruling would be. The government wanted the appellate court to overturn a Miami federal judge’s imposition of $602,000 in sanctions for the U.S. Attorney’s prosecution of Shaygan, a physician accused of illegally writing prescriptions for controlled substances. And as Judge Pryor wrote in the majority opinion in the case, the issues on appeal were profound: “They involve the sovereign immunity of the United States, the constitutional separation of powers, and the civil rights and professional reputations of two federal prosecutors.”