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from MuniLand:

The false equivalence of credit ratings

In a new report, Janney Capital Markets analyst Tom Kozlik calls out Standard & Poor’s for credit ratings on local governments that he says are too liberal. Kozlik claims that S&P is inflating ratings. I think his analysis is solid, but inconclusive given the size of his claim. Kozlik opens the door to more critical analysis of the comparability of ratings.

The Bond Buyer wrote:

Since S&P updated its criteria, it is more common for issuers to have ratings from S&P that are multiple notches higher than their ratings from Moody's. ‘This leads us to believe that ratings shopping will continue, perhaps at an even faster pace than before,’ Kozlik wrote.

Ratings are opinions. There is nothing in federal law or the SEC rules that says one rater must be as conservative as another. Credit rating firms are free to analyze bond issuers however they want, as long as they disclose the methodology. Kozlik seems to believe, like most of the market, that raters should assign alphanumeric ratings in a standardized way to signal risk on an equal scale.

Issuers obviously want the highest rating possible so they can borrow money at the lowest cost. Investors want the opposite -- for issuers to get critical ratings so they can get paid higher interest rates. Issuers often “shop” their ratings to find the best one.

from Global Investing:

Anticipating the fallout from South Africa’s ratings reviews

South Africa is due ratings reviews this Friday. Chances are that the Standard & Poor's agency will cut its BBB rating by one, or possibly even two notches.  Another agency Fitch has a stable outlook on the rating but could still choose to downgrade the rating rather than the outlook. What will be the damage?

There is undoubtedly a link between ratings and bond prices.  So a one-notch ratings downgrade tends to lead to roughly a 20 percent increase in bond yield spreads and credit default swaps (instruments that are used to hedge against default), according to calculations by JPMorgan. But in South Africa the lower credit rating may already be already reflected in asset prices -- Panama, Brazil, Colombia, Philippines, Uruguay, Indonesia, and Romania carry lower sovereign credit ratings but boast lower CDS and dollar bond yield premia over Treasuries.  Russia and Turkey have lower average ratings than South Africa but their debt and CDS spreads  are roughly on the same level.

from MacroScope:

Good news for Greece?

Unemployment is sky high, national debt is not far short of double the size of an economy which is still shrinking and its ruling coalition has a wafer-thin majority, yet there are glimmers of hope in Greece.

Having finally struck a deal with the EU and IMF to keep bailout loans flowing, Athens is preparing to dip its toe back into the bond market with a five-year bond for up to 2 billion euros.

from MacroScope:

EU ratings day: Portugal modest thumbs up, Dutch unscathed, Ireland awaited

Friday is European ratings day since EU rules took force requiring ratings agencies to say precisely when they will make sovereign pronouncements and to do so outside market hours.

S&P has already shifted its outlook on Portugal’s rating from creditwatch negative to negative. The rating remains at BB, one notch below investment grade. That sounds obscure but it’s actually something of a vote of confidence though probably short of what the market had been hoping for.

from MacroScope:

New face at the ECB

The European Central Bank held a steady course at its first policy meeting of the year but flagged up the twin threats of rising short-term money market rates and the possibility of a “worsening” outlook for inflation – i.e. deflation.

The former presumably could warrant a further splurge of cheap liquidity for the bank, the latter a rate cut. But only if deflation really takes hold could QE even be considered.
Sabine Lautenschlaeger, the Bundesbank number two poised to take Joerg Asmussen’s seat on the executive board, breaks cover today, testifying to a European Parliament committee. A regulation specialist, little is known about her monetary policy stance though one presumes she tends to the hawkish.

from MuniLand:

The ‘new stable’ for local governments

Moody’s Ratings made a big sector call last week in its U.S. Public Finance outlook:

Moody's Investors Service has revised its outlook for the US local governments to stable from negative as housing markets continue to stabilize, municipalities' fund balances remain stable, and cities and school districts modify their expenses.

from MuniLand:

Moody’s flawed estimate on public pension liabilities

As the debate continues over public pension funding levels, we have this headline from the Financial Times this week: “US States need $980 billion to fill pension gap, says Moody’s.” This is not exactly news. A number of studies, including ones from the Pew Trust and the Public Fund Survey, have identified a massive shortfall for public pension funds. In fact, the Pew Trust said that the shortfall in 2010 was $1.38 trillion, so perhaps we should be applauding state legislatures for improving the gap since then.

The shortfall numbers in these studies, to put it simply, are all over the place. There are many variables that go into these models, but the main factor that causes variation is the expected rate of return on the assets in the plans. The official assumed return on the assets that are held in trust to pay pension liabilities is 8 percent, according to the Public Fund Survey. Fiddling with this projected rate of return can cause swings in the amount of unfunded liabilities. The Moody’s study uses an unconventional assumption. According to the Adjustments to state pension liabilities document:

from India Insight:

Fitch revises India outlook; recent views of other rating agencies

Fitch Ratings revised India's sovereign rating outlook to "stable" from "negative" on the back of measures taken by the government to contain the budget deficit, it said in a statement on Wednesday. The rating agency had cut India’s outlook to negative in June 2012 and currently has a 'BBB-' rating for the country.

“Fitch expects the government to broadly meet its FY14 budget deficit target of 4.8 percent of GDP (including privatisation receipts) and to gradually reduce the high level of public debt over the medium-term,” the rating agency said.

from Global Investing:

Turkey’s (investment grade)bond market

We wrote here yesterday on how Turkish hard currency bonds have been given the nod to join some Barclays global indices as a result of the country's elevation to investment grade. Turkish dollar bonds will also move to the Investment grade sub-index of JPMorgan's flagship EMBI Global on June 28.

Local lira debt meanwhile will enter JPM's GBI-EM Global Diversified IG 15 percent Cap Index --  the top-tier of the bank's GBI-EM index. But the big prize, an invitation into Citi's mega World Government Bond Index, is still some way off. Requiring a still higher credit rating, WGBI membership is an honour that has been accorded to only four emerging markets so far.

from MacroScope:

Possibility of Spanish downgrade looms over euro zone

Spanish government bonds have had a good run since the European Central Bank said it would protect the euro last year. But some analysts say the threat of a rating downgrade to junk remains an important risk.

Credit default swap prices are discounting such a move, according to Markit. Spain is only one notch above junk according to Moody's and Standard & Poor's ratings, and two notches above junk for Fitch. All three have it on negative outlook.  Bank of America-Merrill Lynch says it sees a “high probability” of a sovereign rating downgrade in the second half of the year.

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