The expense of sprawl

Aug 26, 2014 20:32 UTC

It’s expensive to live in a big city. But what if it’s more expensive to live in a small city? The Citizen’s Budget Commission, a non-profit financial watchdog organization in New York, took a look at housing costs in US metro areas recently, then added in transportation costs. By these two metrics, New York City (and most dense metro areas with good public transportation) is one of the cheaper urban options.

This is what housing and transportation costs look like for a typical household in various urban areas around the country (New York is highlighted because that’s  the CBC’s focus)*:

housing-transport2

Added together, that looks like this:

housing-transport1

Obviously more goes into the cost of living than just these two data points, but it does highlight just how expensive urban sprawl can be.

(h/t City Lab)

*What’s a “typical household”? From the report: “This policy brief uses data for what HUD defines as the “typical regional household.”2 This household is a statistical creation based on average values for selected characteristics – median income, household size, number of workers in the household, and commuting patterns for the workers – of households in the area. For example, a typical household in New York City has 2.69 people, 1.2 commuters, and annual income of $63,915.”

 

Data’s drawbacks: The best way to commute is not always the fastest

Jul 10, 2014 19:59 UTC

What’s the fastest way to get from point A to point B in a major American city? It’s probably a bike, according to a new joint project of the MIT Media Lab and the Social Computing Group (also at MIT). In the You Are Here data visualization, interactive maps show the fastest way to get from wherever you are in any one of 12 cities to other parts of the city. It’s a really fascinating way to visualize how cities in the US are laid out, and possibly has policy implications in helping to understand how important bicycles and associated infrastructure can and should be to the future of urban transportation.

DC Manhattan Brooklyn SF(Fastest transport mode by color: red is cars, yellow bikes, blue transit, and green walking; cities clockwise from top left: Washington, D.C., Manhattan, Brooklyn, San Francisco)

However, it’s also a lesson in the drawbacks of data visualization. In this case, the data is incredibly one-dimensional, and doesn’t necessarily accurately represent the best ways to get around the city. In addition to time, people take into consideration cost, what they need to carry, and what the weather conditions are.

This is what the fastest transit options look like at an old address of mine in East Harlem in Manhattan:

manhattan2

You’d think that anywhere north of Central Park I’d commute by bike, in Midtown and down the center of the city I’d take the train, and anywhere on the edges of the city I’d take a cab. But this doesn’t remotely reflect the way I transported myself when I lived there. Instead, I took the subway almost everywhere, unless I was going somewhere I could park my bike inside and didn’t need to bring a lock — like my office, in prime blue territory in the middle of Midtown — or if I was coming home late at night, in which case I’d always take a cab.

Biking is by far the cheapest form of transportation here in New York. The cost of a bike plus maintenance probably runs about $600-700 in the first year (and much less after that). That’s roughly half of a $112 per month Metrocard, and several times less than keeping a car in the city or taking taxis regularly. You also don’t have to have a ton of concern for timing, since you don’t need to worry about traffic or a train that never comes.

The downsides are the risk of the bike getting stolen (necessitating carrying around an uncomfortably heavy lock, if not two), bad weather, and the danger of riding on the same streets as multiple ton vehicles whose drivers rarely have any concern for your ultimate safety. For an extra $50 a month and a few more minutes a day, you can avoid those things altogether by taking the train. That’s worth it to a lot of people. It’s worth it to me most days, and I own four bikes.

Then again, take a city like Santa Monica, where transit is rarely a great option. If I lived here, I’d probably bike everywhere, even if I owned a car, which is probably the best option for getting other places in the Los Angeles area. The weather is nice enough that neither sweat nor rain are a huge consideration in taking your bike. Even if it’s technically faster to get to the beach by car when you start on the eastern part of town, actual experience in Santa Monica tells me I’m going to spend at least 10 minutes looking for parking (and then probably pay dearly for it).

 santa-monica

Data visualizations are really cool, and oftentimes helpful, but it’s often just as enlightening to think about what is left out as what is put in.

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