Pius polemics persist — more due next month?

October 17, 2008

Pope Pius XII/The Holy SeeReasonable people can agree to disagree on lots of issues, but some are so polarising that even reasonable people will hunker down in opposing trenches whenever debate about them flares up. The long-standing Catholic-Jewish dispute over Pope Pius XII and his role during the Holocaust is one of those issues. The 50th anniversary of Eugenio Pacelli’s death on Oct. 9, 1958 has recently mobilised both his defenders and detractors. After several pro-Pius comments from the Vatican and its friends and a firm but polite rebuttal by an Israeli rabbi, the umbrella group of French Jewish organisations, CRIF, has issued a stinging denunciation of Pius and warning that beatifying him would strike a “severe blow” to Catholic-Jewish relations.

CRIF logoThe statement (here in French) is clearly sharper than the latest call by the U.S.-based Anti-Defamation League (ADL) urging the Vatican to open its last wartime records to historians’ scrutiny before deciding to proceed with Pius’s beatification and eventual canonisation as a Roman Catholic saint. CRIF is the public spokesman for France’s 600,000-strong Jewish community, which is Europe’s largest. It regularly denounces anti-Semitism in France Anti-Defamation League logoand upholds the memory of the Holocaust, but has not been as active as the ADL in engaging the Vatican in the debate over whether Pius did as much as he could have to save Jews during the Holocaust.

A quick look at the timetable of the latest dispute puts the CRIF statement in perspective. Shear-Yashuv Cohen, chief rabbi of Haifa in Israeli, became the first Jew to address a bishops’ synod in Rome on Oct. 6. Catholic-Jewish relations have improved markedly in recent decades and Cohen accepted the invitation in that spirit. But when in Rome he realised the meeting would also be commemorating Pius’s death, he told our Vatican correspondent Phil Pullella he might not have attended if he had known that. During his address, he told the bishops that Jews “cannot forgive and forget” that some major religious leaders during World War Two did not speak out against the Holocaust. He separately told reporters Pius “should not be seen as a model and he should not be beatified”.

Benedict XVI prays at Pius XII’s tomb, 9 Oct 2008/Osservatore RomanoFour days later, at the Oct. 9 commemorative Mass for Pius, Pope Benedict — who as a German must be particularly sensitive to the debate — staunchly defended his Italian predecessor. Pius “often acted in a secret and silent way precisely because, given the real situations of that complex moment in history, he realised that only in this manner could the worst be avoided and greatest number of Jews be saved,” Benedict said. He added that he hoped the beatification process could “proceed happily” (felicemente in the original Italian, successfully in the official English translation).

Even though he gave no date for any move on beatification, this was clearly a ringing papal endorsement for the plan. It’s no surprise, then, that CRIF upped the ante, saying that a beatification “would deal a severe blow to relations between the Catholic Church and the Jewish world”. Apart from criticising Pius’s caution during the war, it said he never issued a full public denunciation of the Holocaust after the war and called this shocking. “Jewish survivors of the Shoah will suffer a profound hurt if the silence of the magisterium in the face of the genocide of the Jews is presented as model behaviour,” it concluded.

Photo exhibit on Pius XII at at Yad Vashem Holocaust Museum in Jerusalem, 15 April 2007/Yonathan WeitzmanA look at the Vatican agenda shows this dispute may not go away soon. The Vatican plans to open a photo exhibition on Pius next week and two pontifical universities in Rome, the Gregorian and the Lateran, will hold a joint conference on the pope and his teachings in early November. So there will be more fodder for debate.

For an institution that famously “thinks in centuries”, the Vatican seems to be pressing the issue by moving towards beatification before Pius and his papacy have slipped out of living memory. It seems to be saying that the Church and the Church alone will determine who is a saint. By doing so, it has painted itself into the “damned if you do, damned if you don’t” corner. As the U.S. religion writer David Gibson put it : “Giving Pius the green light to sainthood would compound the controversy; not doing so would be seen as a rank injustice by some Catholics.”

Raffi Shahinian/Parables of a Prodigal WorldAfter reading an earlier FaithWorld post on Pius, a reader named Raffi Shahinian left a link to an interesting comment on his blog. Pius may well have done the best he felt he could do under the circumstances, he said. “But shouldn’t a saint be someone whose life and works are more indisputably Jesus-shaped? Shouldn’t a saint be someone who the whole Church, nay, the whole world, can look to and say, ‘Now that’s what I’m talking about!’ In other words, should the very debate disqualify Pius?

After all the books, conference, articles and disputes about Pius, is that it in a nutshell?

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From an undated letter to Pope Pius XI presumably from April 12 1933, which has been handed personally to the Pope by Arch Abbot Raphael Walzer from Beuron (Germany), Edith Steins spiritual advisor on April 20 1933. Only ten weeks after Hitlers take over (Machtergreifung) on January 30 1933 Edith Stein writes in her letter to the Pope P. XI from “actions […], which are in defiance of justice and humanity – not to speak even of charity”, of “hatred against jews” and “excesses”, of “despair”, which had already led in her private neighbourhood “to 5 suicides as the result of these persecutions”. – All this in that short period.

Later in her letter: “But the responsibility falls in great part on those, which brought it so far. And on those who are silent.” … “Since weeks not only jews wait and hope but thousands of loyal catholics in germany – and I think all over the world – are waiting on, that the church rises its voice to stop the missuse for the christs name unity.” –

In view of this early document, how one can disregard the objections of the confounded jews. (See the speech to the world bishops synod at the Vatican on October 06 2008 by Rabbi Shear-Yashuv Cohen relative to Pope Pius XII)

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