FaithWorld

The Swiss minaret ban and other trends for Islam in Europe

November 30, 2009

minarets-trainSwitzerland’s vote to ban minarets on mosques there raises the question of whether anything similar might happen elsewhere in Europe. Researching this for an analysis of the vote today, I found experts distinguished between actually banning an Islamic symbol such as the minaret and using the minaret example to fan voters’ fears and boost a (usually far-right) party’s chances at the polls. It seems Switzerland’s trademark direct democracy system makes it possibly the only country in Europe where both seem possible right now.

(Photo: Vote “yes” posters in Zurich’s main train station, 26 Oct 2009/Arnd Wiegmann)

This distinction could become more important in coming months as far-right parties, as they are expected to do, try to exploit the minaret ban to rally support for their anti-immigration policies. The Swiss far right has already suggested going for a ban of full facial veils (aka burqas and niqabs) next. Marine Le Pen, deputy leader of France’s National Front, has called for a referendum in France not only on minarets, but also on immigration and a wide array of other issues linked to Muslims. Filip Dewinter, head of Belgium’s Vlaams Belang, said he wanted to change zoning laws there to ban buildings that damage the cultural identity of the surrounding neighbourhood”. It remains to be seen how far they can get with these demands.

At the same time, the consensus reaction from politicians and the press across Europe today was critical of the Swiss vote. Most of the excited calls for more action come from fringe parties the majority parties keep at a distance (except the Northern League, which is part of Silvio Berlusconi’s government in Italy). Referendums are not as easy to stage in other European countries and are even banned in Germany, where the up-and-coming team of Hitler andGoebbels used them before 1933 to rally support for the Nazi Party.

Muslims in Europe were naturally shocked by the vote and worried about what might come next. The possibility of further pressure on them cannot be ignored because globalisation is forcing European societies to deal with increasing religious, ethnic and cultural diversity. While not denying that pressure, which naturally does not make life welcoming for Muslims here, let’s look at a few trends that seem to get drowned out in the headlines.

cologne-heightsThe first is that mosques are now part of the European landscape. There were some quite raw confrontations over them in the 1980s and 1990s in the countries with bigger and older Muslim communities such as France, Britain and Germany. There are still some heated debates, as the uproar over the plan for a large Turkish mosque in Cologne showed. But for the most part, those mosque projects have gone ahead. In the Cologne case, despite repeated criticism and far-right protests, the new mosque will have two 55-meter minarets — tall for an average church, but nothing like the 157-meter spires above the city’s famous Catholic cathedral.

(Image: Comparitive heights of Cologne cathedral and planned mosque/DITIB)

Just like a bell tower or spire is normal but not necessary for a church, the minaret and the loud public call to prayer — both regular features in Muslim countries — are optional elements for mosques. Almost no mosques in Europe use loudspeakers for the adhan, preferring to keep the call to prayer within the mosque, and many of them do without a minarets or agree to shorten their planned heights to make them fit into the local cityscape. These details can be negotiated constructively, if both sides — repeat, both sides — bring the necessary good will to the table.

Another fact is that there is now roughly enough mosque space for Europe’s Muslims, according to recent estimates, so the phase of active expansion of mosques and prayer rooms — which created the initial tensions with majority populations — may be waning. In some areas, a new one has started as Muslim communities take root and want to “trade up” from makeshift prayer rooms to better and more visible mosques. That can create new tensions. This was the case in Cologne, where Turkish-German Muslims are swapping a mosque set up in a former factory for the elegant new purpose-built mosque that caused so much controversy. But these controversies take place in cities where many locals now know some Muslim neighbours and take their side in the conflict. Do difficulties remain? Sure. But do situations develop? Certainly. Many critical commentators don’t take that dynamism enough into account.

conflict-over-mosquesOne researcher who does see the changes going on is Stefano Allievi, an Italian sociologist who has made a name as a leading observer of Islam in Europe. Earlier this month, he published the 102-page report that I mention in my analysis, Conflicts over Mosques in Europe: Policy Issues and Trends. He sees the recent rise in populist agitation against Islam in Europe and thinks it could increase. But beneath the surface, he finds interesting signs of integration of Islam into European societies. A lot of this is happening at the grass-roots level, below the radar of most headline writers, but it is taking place. Take a close look at his report (here in PDF) for a better idea of how this is playing out.

Probably because reporting on Islam in Europe rather than theorising about it is part of my job, I have never been convinced by the alarmist “Eurabia” thesis that Muslim immigration will turn Europe Islamic within a few generations, subjecting the non-Muslim local population to a religious subjugation called “dhimmitude”. Although it is much more sophisticated, I also don’t agree either with Christopher Caldwell’s book Reflections on the Revolution in Europe, which sees an army of fervent Muslim believers challenging a sceptical and spineless majority of post-Christian Europeans. As the prominent British Islam scholar Malise Ruthven put it in the latest New York Review of Books, Caldwell “takes an essentialist perspective of a primordial religion impervious to change, as if he were oblivious of the way that essentialist views of religion have long been under sustained intellectual attack”. He rejects what the British scholar Aziz al-Azmeh calls “the cliché of a homogenous collectivity innocent of modernity, cantankerously or morosely obsessed with prayer, fasting, veiling (and) medieval social and penal arrangements”.

The integration of Islam in Europe has not been easy and will continue to create tensions and misunderstandings for some time to come, on both sides of the supposed divide. But this is a dynamic process that changes all actors involved, sometimes in contradictory ways, and it is better reflected in Allievi’s long report than in many of the short but alarming stories most readers will find about it.

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Comments
36 comments so far | RSS Comments RSS

Time to tackle those church spires and cruciforms. And while we are at it, lets ban those crucifixes, stars of David, ankhs, and other symbols of religion hanging from necks in public.

Posted by Richard McDonough | Report as abusive
 

In Europe racism is ever worse. Not only against Muslims, but also against Christian Africans, South Americans, Chinese, Indians and other Asians. There’s a Christian fundamentalism, where religion is used as a cloak to conceal racism. I think that sooner or later boycott of European economy will be the only possible way to fight racism. Europeans must know that racism has a price. Racists say “it’s possible to discriminate, don’t be afraid to abuse Islam, don’t be afraid to abuse blacks, nothing will happen”. If nothing happens, racism will grow.

Posted by Paolo Zeriali, Italy | Report as abusive
 

I don’t blame the Swiss. France is on the right track also. You don’t change the country move to. You adapt. If you don’t like the country the way it is people, don’t move there.

Posted by Mick | Report as abusive
 

Why is it so surprising. Muslims don’t allow churches or temples on muslim land like saudi.. forget construction, non muslim is not even allowed to carry religious book in their country. They will throw it when u arrive at saudi airport.Why dont muslims protest about this???? if they want to be secular in other countries then why not be secular on Muslim land itself.

Posted by Ronak Sheth | Report as abusive
 

Xenophobia is okay as long as you are Muslim; not only are all church spires banned in Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia, but so are all churches, bibles, etc., you can actually be put to death for having a bible. When will Europe wake up and realize that far from a mythical multiculturalism, we are being colonized – colonized by religious and ethnic forces that share non of our history, values, or traditions, and which regards non-Muslims as the enemy. God bless the people of Switzerland for recognizing what is going on and exercising their sovereign rights to do something about it!

Posted by Charles | Report as abusive
 

WHY ISN’T ANYONE TALKING ABOUT WHY THESE MUSLIM NATIONS WILL “KILL”!!!! ANY ONE PRACTICING ANOTHER RELIGION IN THERE LAND. THE SWISS ARE NOT STOPPING THE MUSLIM RELIGION JUST A CERTAIN BUILDING STRUCTURE.WAKE UP PEOPLE!!!!!

Posted by Dennis | Report as abusive
 

I am a Muslim and I think that this kind of action is not right although whether to have a minaret or not at the mosque is not such a big deal, but it shows what kind of mentality these people have. It really amazed me that a ‘developed’ country such as Switzerland need to go that far to get the minaret ban vote.I really hope that the Muslims of Switzerland will have the patience and continue the struggle for their rights. Our prayers is for you and may Allah bless you all.

Posted by ibn masud, Malaysia | Report as abusive
 

When one chooses to immigrate to another country, one should be expected to generally accept the standard rights of men and women in that country, and general lifestyle of the new country (one has chosen to be there, after all).Perhaps the misunderstanding of Islam is based in a very real fear that it can and has been associated directly with current acts of violence and subjugation of women and children. Christian faiths have also, in the past, been associated with violence and issues against women and children. (Crusades were in the name of God, and pedophile priests are not uncommon, etc.). What will we learn from history? Will we ever honor our women and children, and the right all people have to live peacefully without trying to conquer others in ‘faith’?

Posted by Barb Sundt | Report as abusive
 

TOM HENEGAN YOU ARE MISSLEADING.1. Mosque are authorized in Switzerland. We are talking about a minaret. You compare Church and Minaret which are absolutely not the same. Please provide the sources where you found that minarets are a requirement of mosques.2. The ban is unlikely to be followed in other European country because Switzerland is the only country with direct democracy in Europe. I am not sure you fully understand what is it and how this works in Switzerland. If yes, may be you shoul describe it in your opinion.3. The large majority of roughly 5% of Muslim in Switzerland do not practice their religion. Religion in Switzerland is a non issue. Could you tell me what is the number of people who practice religion in Switzerland? Have you been in church in Switzerland? If not you may be surprised how empty they are.4. Can I build a minaret in your backyard? Or can I install a large Costco sign in front of your home?

Posted by Luc | Report as abusive
 

People must always be cautious when they hear someone throwing accusations around suggesting racism.The term is used most frequently to enforce a point of view or influence decisions in favor of the person making the accusation.In certain minority groups it is a useful tool which is utilized as an excuse in many situations.Any critics of President Obama,s policies have had these accusations leveled at them by supporters from his political party from day one.It has also provided a very good livelihood for certain people who have confused many with the threat of racism to further their own ends.So be warned about these “wolves in sheep clothing” Hitlar came to power when he blamed the jews in Germany for their countries unemployment and the Germans swallowed it.

Posted by brian lee | Report as abusive
 

How many churches or synagogues are there in Saudi Arabia? Even in a modern Muslim country like Turkey it is impossible to build a new church or synagogue. Why is the world not talking about the hypocrisy of Muslim countries, the most intolerant in the world as far as other religions are concerned. It is the right of every country to impose it’s own architectural standards. No one in Switzerland is banning any minority religions unlike in most Muslim countries. Come on people, wake up.

Posted by pasha | Report as abusive
 

Luc, I think you read a different post from the one I wrote. I never said minarets were a requirement. Switzerland is not the only country in Europe with referendums. The number of people who actually practice their religion in Switzerland is an interesting but irrelevant fact if we’re talking about the ones who do. And I have no idea why you want to put a large Costco sign in front of my home.

 

I am a common citizen of this world. I am welcome in a Hindu temple, a Sikh temple and a christian church with a warm smile. Even my ignorance to a lot of customs of entering these places are tolerated with love. I am not allowed to enter a muslim mosque. When I go from outside a mosque at the time of prayers, I am looked at suspiciously. It would be okay if Islam was a small religion being practiced by a small group but as a lot of people in various blogs continuously remind us, Islam is followed by 25% of the world. I seriously believe that the minarets are not only a part of building for the muslim psyche. Minarets are a type of stamp of colonisation of that area by Islam. It is a subtle threat to non-muslims and a type of strength to the muslims who can view the minarets from far away and hear its voice. This all has been laughable for a long time. Its not anymore. You cannot ignore the facts by calling this Xenophobia or Islamophobia etc..

Posted by Elephant_to_Party | Report as abusive
 

So when are Churches going to be built in Saudi Arabia?

Posted by shankar | Report as abusive
 

This is a good idea by the Swiss and an example of a country actually doing what its citizens want. As a British citizen I hope the same ban soon happens in the UK. I am fed up of Islam trying to colonize Europe.

Posted by Janice | Report as abusive
 

I think it’s ridiculous. Look, everyone is saying that in other countries that they don’t allow this and that, but there are Christian Arabs. There probably are churches but very much hidden away where we cant see them. But anyways, a Muslim growing up in the Western world is very much aware of the individual rights to religion and speech. In the Middle East, these rights are very limited but it cannot be blamed on the people but by the way the society was built on. Those most knowledgable about Islam can tell you that Islam itself is a very tolerable religion. In reality the Muslim nations should be allowing churches and other religious buildings but it’s the fault of the system that they forbid these things.I’m from the US and also a convert of Islam and I can tell you that real practicing Muslims will always welcome you with open arms. I have never seen so much hatred towards Islam or even cultures and ethnicities till i moved to Europe. And they called us in the US intolerable.

Posted by Leila | Report as abusive
 

I’d be a little more worried about freedom of religion and women’s rights in Muslim countries before I would whine about Switzerland and Europe – practice what you preach – its hard to have compassion for hypocrites…

Posted by Brad | Report as abusive
 

It’s always amazing how people want to fight a social injustice.For example, look at this comment board. “Hey, what the Saudi’s to christians is awful!! The best way for us to make it right is to do the exact same thing the Saudi’s are doing, the same thing I say is repulsive.”Thank goodness I’m an atheist, thus I’m not required to hate so many billions of people because my fairy tale book or God tells me to.

Posted by Michael Ham | Report as abusive
 

I am a catholic working for 8 years in saudi arabia. our christain community are not allowed to have a church, or even a house to hold mass on sunday. forget about a church, if you are caught with a Bible, there is hell to pay with the religious police.It seems the West shouts when it wants to for thier muslim brothers, Our muslims brothers are chopping our heads off for holding our Bible.Thank you western civilization for looking out for your money and your children and forgetting about OURS

Posted by Ali (christain convert) | Report as abusive
 

If Muslims want to build Mosques so much they can stay in the middle east and build them rather than moving to Europe. Muslims just want to live in the UK and other European countries for our generous welfare benefits and take what they can, they have no loyalty to Europe.

Posted by WallyfromWatford | Report as abusive
 

There are so many churches with bell towers throughout Muslim world even with in a countries who are fully Muslim like Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Kuwait… etc. Some research might help before people jump into wrong conclusion. If there are not too many new one that being built, that is do to the lack of Europeans Christian migration to the Muslim countries. When there are mass migration of Christians to Muslim counties then the comparison will be more logical. Some of these comments show the lack of awareness that many western have about Muslim world. There are some extreme religious counties like Saudi Arabia that banned building of church but that is the same case as the Vatican state. I think it amusing that how some people compare a “FREE, DEMOCRATIC, and CIVILIZED” country like Switzerland to a country that luck all kind of human right like Saudi Arabia. You should be embarrassed of this categorization with a medieval dictatorship country like Saudi Arabia. I just can’t believe how well knowledgeable and moral society like Switzerland can fall to this right winged propaganda ideology of Muslims plan to invade and enforce their own religious belief and law on Europeans. Most of these emigrants have escaped hard circumstances either economically or politically and the last thing they want to is to engage in more conflict with the hosting countries. We keep forgetting that their are millions of Muslims who have fully integrated with western societies (only if they were allowed) but we always keep focusing on the minarets that want to hold on to the personal believes. What happen to personal choices. We can expect everyone to move to Europe to convert to Christianity to be socially accepted. If secularism is the base of western democracy then freedom of religion should be respected. If not, then how Europe is different then Saudi Arabia and Iran. Racism is major issue in Europe and it needed to be addressed logically. How do you expect people to integrate in to societies if they are not treated with equal rights. I can understand some people concern over persevering their cultures and heritage but banning is not the correct way of dealing with the issue. What happen to setting a building code? Build the minarets but in same architecture style as the surrounding that way it create a positive and harmonious integration between two side and with out offending or suppressing any one rights.

Posted by Nabil Jamil | Report as abusive
 

So Reuters is now pro islam

Posted by SLawrie | Report as abusive
 

Why arent there CHURCHES in SAUDI ARABIA? = DUMBEST ARGUMENT!———————————————————The extremist right wing Swiss party SVP and their followers used on-and-on, relentlessly the argument that “Why should Switzerland ALLOW MINARETS, if SAUDI ARABIA does not allow CHURCHES. This is really a MANIPULATIVE argument. WHY? Two reasons:1. Church is to mosque what a bell tower is to a minaret. There are dozens of mosques in Switzerland but only 4 minarets. Comparing a church with a minaret is incorrect. But, fine…2. SWITZERLAND is a land of FREEDOM and civil RIGHTS with the luxury and privilege of direct DEMOCRACY. Comparing this land with an ABSOLUTE MONARCHY that does NOT PERMIT religious freedom, is implying that Switzerland is AS WORSE as Saudi Arabia in being NOT a land of FREEDOM.

Posted by Samyr | Report as abusive
 

Let us compare islam and other relitions..Answer Yes or No. THe answer will speak for itself..Can a non-muslim practice religion fearlessly in an islamic land? ( Middle east to start with.)Who gets more freedom to practice religion,.. a muslim in a christian land or a christian in an muslim land.Which religion has more fanatics than any other religion?Which religion is growing exponentially and why?Which religion promotes love as opposed to hate?Where is religious intolerance more? Islamic faiths or non-islamic faiths..Do you expect this faith to get more peacefull and understanding about other faiths as the years go by..?THe list is endless..Does ‘anyone’ have the courage to introspect without a fatwa or death.?Can anyone outside the religon walk into this place of worship without being stopped.THe list is endless..

Posted by rab gem | Report as abusive
 

There are so many churches with bell towers throughout Muslim world even with in a countries who are fully Muslim like Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Kuwait… etc. Some research might help before people jump into wrong conclusion. If there are not too many new one that being built, that is do to the lack of Europeans Christian migration to the Muslim countries. When there are mass migration of Christians to Muslim counties then the comparison will be more logical. Some of these comments show the lack of awareness that many western have about Muslim world. There are some extreme religious counties like Saudi Arabia that banned building of church but that is the same case as the Vatican banning mosques. I think it amusing that how some people compare a “FREE, DEMOCRATIC, and CIVILIZED” country like Switzerland to a country that luck all kind of human right like Saudi Arabia. You should be embarrassed of this categorization with a medieval dictatorship country like Saudi Arabia. I just can’t believe how well knowledgeable and moral society like Switzerland can fall to this right winged propaganda ideology of Muslims plan to invade and enforce their own religious belief and law on Europeans. Most of these emigrants have escaped hard circumstances either economically or politically and the last thing they want to is to engage in more conflict with the hosting countries. We keep forgetting that their are millions of Muslims who have fully integrated with western societies (only if they were aloud) but we always keep focusing on the minarets that want to hold on to there personal believes. What happen to personal choices. We can expect everyone who move to Europe to convert to Christianity so they can be socially accepted. If secularism is the base of western democracy then freedom of religion should be respected. If not, then how Europe is different then Saudi Arabia and Iran. Racism is major issue in Europe and it needed to be addressed logically. How do you expect people to integrate in to societies if they are not treated with equal rights. I can understand some people concern over persevering their cultures and heritage but banning is not the correct way of dealing with the issue. What happen to setting a building code? Build the minarets but in same architecture style as the surrounding that way it create a positive and harmonious integration between two side and with out offending or suppressing any one rights.

Posted by nabil Jamil | Report as abusive
 

The vote against minarets was a victory for feminists who do not want to be subjugated, demeaned and violated by Islam. Yes, Swiss women overwhelmingly voted against minarets — why? The rape rate in Europe has tripled & quadrupled in the last 20 years, due to Muslim immigration. Many Muslim rapists (and their imans) say it is acceptable to rape women who do not wear head scarves. Add this detail to others: honor killings, stoning to death for premarital sex, wife-beating, arranged marriages, and tidbits like women can’t drive or vote in Saudi Arabia, and you can see why Islam is justifiably horrible to civilized women, and it should also be abhorrent to their fathers, brothers, and sons. I applaud the Swiss for their vote and I will be buying lots of Swiss knives and chocolate this holiday season to support them.

Posted by Henry Johnson | Report as abusive
 

It seems strange that Muslims would insist on building minarets for mosques in Switzerland while thousands of mosques exist inside the Muslim world without minarets. The minarets are seen by many as representing the superiority of Islam, especially when they are taller than the churches; this sheds some light on the hidden intentions of Muslims who insist on building minarets in the heart of Europe. It is important that Muslims in Switzerland explain why they insist on using such historical symbols of Muslim superiority when it is neither mentioned in the Koran nor considered vital to building a mosque.

Posted by DLCO | Report as abusive
 

Congradulations to the Swiss. I support the ban. I wish all of Europe would do the same. Islam comes to conquer, that is it, after that, there is no inspirations. I love you Europe.

Posted by garth sommer | Report as abusive
 

Saudi Arabia is not the Islamic world, many Islamic countries have churches and Christians are free to practice their religion. I don’t know what colonization you are talking about? is it because of the increased number of people getting into islam in Europe? Are they forced to do so or what? The minaret issue is not important itself ; but this hate and biased ideas that you have about mouslims is what really matters to me . why this big gab between the two cultures . what happened to understand each other without prejudgments and generalizing . when races phrases like mouslims are ready to kill however disagree with them or non muslimes are the enemy,…etc are going to disappear and come up with more sensible logical words which explain truly how we are ( which is by the way is just the opposite!!).

Posted by Nermin | Report as abusive
 

In egypt,muslims are burning down churches, let alone trying to build a new one. Its takes years and years to get a permit to fix church building here in egypt and have to go through several bribes system.Saudia Arabia has no churches at all, if you are caught with a Bible there is hell to pay with the religious police.Muslims are hyprocrites. Do unto others what you want others to do for you, this is a lesson muslims have yet to learn.www.faithfreedom.orgwww.thethirdji had.comwww.thereligionofpeace.com

Posted by kamin | Report as abusive
 
 

Perhaps if the Muslims didn’t kill and threaten to kill people who criticize them the Swiss would be more tolerant. If they want to be tolerated they should learn to tolerate others first.Google Theo Van Gogh, Hirsi Ali, Geert Wilders, or any of the Jyllands-Posten cartoonists. They live in fear of their lives because MUSLIM RELIGIOUS LEADERS issued FATWAs on their heads.Here in the US people throw elephant dung on a picture of Jesus and display it as “art”. But you can’t draw a stick figure of Mohammed without some IMAM calling for your heads.Yet all you poor sobs are worried about minarets. Fools

Posted by OldDbo | Report as abusive
 

I think the behind the scenes the Muslim world should feel truly embarrassed by the Swiss minaret vote – because they haven’t got a leg to stand on.Let’s go down the list:- Maldives no non-Muslim can be a citizen – just passed a bill that forbids building of churches – will imprison non-Muslim for 3-5 years for breaking religious rules.- Bibles have been confiscated at airports in Maldives, Jordan, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia [where Bibles are shredded].- Non Muslims in Egypt and in Pakistan are not equal to Muslim citizens under the law. And in both countries there are regular attacks on Christians and Baha’is/Egypt/ – and there is virtually no recourse under the law.In Syria – only Muslim men are allowed to freely marry outside of their group – if a Christian Syrian wants to marry another Christian of a different group or country – he has to convert to Islam first – then he is free to marry.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=739 E3Z78V6ENaturally NO ONE IS ALLOWED TO LEAVE ISLAM !! in virtually any Muslim country. Even in Turkey conversions can be viewed as ‘offending Islam = offending Turkishness’ Article 301.Algeria churches are closed – Christians arrested. Morocco it is illegal for a Muslim to enter a church.In Qatar they built the first church after 1400 years – with no outward signs that it is a church.-It seems the same things Muslim countries want the world to accept – is the same things Muslims want in Europe – and that is – that Europe should tolerate Muslim intolerance.The Swiss vote is a loud and clear NO !!Egypt and Jordan were once Christan countries – now Christians live as second-class citizens under Sharia law [which mandates this]. Where Muslims and Islamic sensitivities are given priority in every respect – it is clear to many – Muslims want the same in Europe.Instead of looking at Europe’s few instances of intolerance – look instead at the institutionalized intolerance in the Islamic world – the same of which Muslims are trying to import into Europe.’Apartheid at Islamic Schools’- Islamic schools treat Dutch teachers who are not Muslims as inferior.http://www.nisnews.nl/public/18 0809_2.htmWe are going to have to ask a little bit more of Muslims – then we are now doing.

Posted by Rose | Report as abusive
 

I guess Europeans have got scared of how Islam has become the fastest growing religion all over the world esp Europe and America

Posted by Sidra | Report as abusive
 

@Nermin

You are right. Many churches built in Iran. But look at the life of an irian willing to enter a Church, or even celebrate Jusus in her home: Months of prison and they would still be there without an intertional campaign.
http://www.compassdirect.org/english/cou ntry/iran/11805/

Posted by Ra_Fa_Le | Report as abusive
 

Just because most Christians no longer consider most of the teachings of the Bible (especially the Old Testament) to be relevant today does not mean Muslims are going to accept that attitude toward the Qur’an, regardless of what governments impose on their Muslim populations.

Geez! I can’t believe how easily Europeans get bent out of shape!

Posted by khadijah1212 | Report as abusive
 

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