The cost of sovereign default turns negative
Ecuador has closed out its bond exchange offer at the higher end of expectations, paying 35 cents on the dollar to investors who hold the 2012 and 2030 global bonds. That’s higher than the bonds have traded all year, and certainly higher than they have traded since Ecuador defaulted — which means that any vulture investors who bought the bonds in default will be able to lock in a decent profit for doing essentially no work at all.
What’s more, Ecuador has announced that anybody who put in an offer higher than 35 cents will be allowed to re-tender at the 35 cent level. This makes sense from Ecuador’s point of view, and gives people who tendered high the opportunity to re-think their strategy in the light of known events. It’s pretty clear that at this level a supermajority of the total bonds outstanding will end up being owned by Ecuador — which means that Ecuador will have the ability to strip a lot of creditor protections out of the instruments.
Ecuador has suffered no negative repercussions from its actions — quite the opposite. If the country needs any money in the next few years, it’ll be able to get it, from the Andean Development Bank or the Inter-American Development Bank or the World Bank or even the International Monetary Fund. None of them seem to particularly care that Ecuador defaulted on its global bonds, and emerging-market bondholders are so weak and fragmented these days that they hold very little sway any more within international financial institutions.
Indeed, given the short memory of emerging-market bondholders, I wouldn’t be surprised to see Ecuador regain its access to the international capital markets within a few years, thanks to the way in which it has managed to substantially reduce its (already pretty low) debt-to-GDP ratio. That could well be the thinking behind the decision to remain current on the 2015 global bonds, which were issued when current president Rafael Correa was finance minister. Look, he’s saying: we pay back the money that we borrow. We just don’t pay back debt which was originally borrowed decades ago and which was restructured twice in a manner designed to be as friendly as possible to private-sector creditors.
Looking at this from a systemic perspective, it’s pretty clear that in this instance the cost of default, to Ecuador, was negative. That’s dangerous: it radically increases the probability of tactical defaults from all manner of other countries, including Argentina, Venezuela, and various African states. And once a wave of sovereign defaults starts, it’s very difficult to stop, since the cost of default drops with each new event. Right now the risk of such a wave is surely near a multi-decade high.