There’s a very simple and cost-free thing that all news organizations can do to make their news better: every time you write about a court filing or judgment, link to it. (And, ideally, make sure it’s been uploaded to Recap, too.) For instance, consider Patricia Cohen’s NYT article about David Mirvish’s lawsuit against the Knoedler gallery. (See what I did there? You’re welcome.)
Cohen’s article is a very interesting view of the lawsuit and its context, but it doesn’t come close to capturing the barminess of the complaint. And because Cohen understands the bigger picture, she actually ends up misrepresenting the suit itself, in which Mirvish is seeking to take possession of two paintings on the grounds that Knoedler, which has now closed, isn’t selling them. Here’s Cohen:
While most of the suits have argued that the paintings Ms. Rosales brought to market were fakes, Mr. Mirvish says his are Modernist masterpieces and that he lost out on millions of dollars in profits when Knoedler failed to sell them.
In reality, Mirvish isn’t suing for “millions of dollars in profits”: he just wants the paintings, is all. Which is pretty aggressive, seeing as how he’s only paid for a 50% share in them.
The case is fascinating because Mirvish was acting as an unabashed speculator in this case: he bought the Pollocks low, knowing that they had dubious provenance, and hoped, with Knoedler’s help, to be able to sell them high and make a tidy profit. Call it provenance arbitrage: Knoedler was a storied and highly-respected gallery, and a painting being represented as genuine Pollock by Knoedler is worth a lot more than a painting being represented as genuine Pollock by a sketchy Long Island dealer by the name of Glafira Rosales.
In the beginning, everything worked out great for both Knoedler and Mirvish, even if Mirvish’s lawyer, Nicholas Gravante, seems to find it incredibly difficult to explain what actually happened. For instance, he writes:
Knoedler purchased the Silver Pollock from Rosales for $950,000 in 2002.
Knoedler paid $475,000 to Rosales from its own funds and contemporaneously sold Mirvish a 50% investment interest in the Silver Pollock for $1.6 million. Thus, the end result of the transaction was that Knoedler held title to the Silver Pollock, and Knoedler recorded a profit of $1.125 million.
This is not easy to understand. On a cashflow basis, if Knoedler buys the painting for $950,000 and then sells a 50% stake in the painting for $1.6 million, then the profit to the gallery is $650,000, not $1.125 million. And on a mark-to-market basis, if the Mirvish deal ratifies a $3.2 million valuation on the painting, then Knoedler has made $650,000 in cash, plus $1.6 million for the value of its own 50% stake, for a total profit of $2.25 million. The only way to get to $1.125 million is to think of the painting in two halves. Knoedler bought both halves for $475,000 apiece, and then sold one of the halves for a profit of $1.125 million, while holding on to the other half for itself.
Now this may or may not be the way that Knoedler thought about the deal; the whole thing is massively complicated by the fact that, as Cohen reports, Gravante also represents Knoedler’s former president, Ann Freedman. Why on earth would Mirvish hire the lawyer who represents the president of the gallery he’s suing?
What’s more, the public version of the lawsuit omits what happened next to the Silver Pollock: Freedman sold it to a London hedge fund manager, Pierre Lagrange, for $17 million, and, according to Cohen, “for four years, the sellers, including Mr. Mirvish, enjoyed the gains from their commercial coup”. Presumably, Mirvish received half of that $17 million, and made a personal profit of $6.9 million; Knoedler also made $6.9 million, plus the $1.125 million it had already made on the Mirvish deal, for a total of $8.025 million.
There is one short paragraph of the lawsuit which has been redacted, which may or may not explain some of what happened after Lagrange declared the painting to be a fake and asked for his money back; it certainly doesn’t seem long enough to explain the whole story. Still, the upshot, at least in Mirvish’s mind, seems to be that Knoedler now possesses the painting; that it’s not attempting to sell the painting; and that if Knoedler isn’t going to try to sell the painting, then Mirvish wants his $1.6 million back.
All of this seems to hinge on a “contract” between Mirvish and Knoedler, under which Mirvish’s payment of $1.6 million was not a once-and-for all purchase of 50% of the painting, but was rather a revocable deal, under which Knoedler had the right to retain the $1.6 million only if it was “marketing and attempting to sell” the painting. Naturally, Mirvish can’t produce a copy of this “contract”. But never mind that: it’s just not fair, what Knoedler did. In probably the most astonishing sentence in the entire complaint, we’re told that
Mirvish’s investment in the Silver Pollock was worthless absent Knoedler’s agreement to market and sell the painting.
Worthless! Remember, here, that Mirvish still believes the Silver Pollock to be a timeless masterpiece. But he, like the White Queen, is clearly one of those people capable of believing six impossible things before breakfast, since he also seems to think that a 50% ownership stake in a significant Pollock painting is worthless — unless, that is, an Upper East Side art gallery is attempting to sell the thing.
Now Mirvish used to be an art dealer in his own right, and I’m sure he never told people buying a painting that their painting would be worthless unless it was consigned for sale somewhere. But for the purposes of this complaint, the money that Mirvish spent on his 50% of the painting amounts to “unjust enrichment” of Knoedler, just because Knoedler (which is no longer operating) isn’t actively trying to sell the thing.
All of which is to say that in this lawsuit, Mirvish has taken the idea of art-as-an-investment to a particularly bonkers extreme. In Mirvish’s world, it seems, artworks have no inherent value, just by dint of being beautiful or genuine or unique. Instead, an artwork is only an investment if it’s being shopped around — if someone’s trying to make a profit on it, by selling it.
Similarly, in Mirvish’s world, if a gallery has a claim to 50% of the value of a painting, but again isn’t actively shopping that painting around, then the gallery’s claim is worthless. That’s basically what Mirvish is saying with respect to the other two Rosales Pollocks he took a 50% stake in.
The deal with these two Pollocks — which are rather hilariously referred to in the complaint as “the Greenish Pollock” and “the Square Pollock” — was slightly different than the deal with the Silver Pollock. The basic facts are similar: Knoedler bought the Greenish Pollock from Rosales for $750,000, and then sold a 50% stake in it to Mirvish for $1.25 million. And after buying the Square Pollock from Rosales for $2.25 million, Knoedler sold a 50% stake in that painting to Mirvish for $2 million.
But these two paintings weren’t split into conceptual halves, in the way that the Silver Pollock was. Instead, a rather complicated arrangement was worked out. Mirvish contracted to buy both paintings in full, outright — but he only paid half of the total purchase price. The other half of the purchase price was lent to Mirvish by Knoedler, in the form of “a non-recourse, non-interest bearing loan”. And just as with the Silver Pollock, Knoedler kept physical possession of the painting, with an eye to flipping it for a profit. Under the terms of the loan, 50% of the sale proceeds would go to Knoedler, and 50% to Mirvish; if all went according to plan, Knoedler’s 50% would be more than enough to pay off the loan and to keep a healthy profit for itself.
This is not easy to follow, but the key word here is “non-recourse”. What it means is that although Knoedler had technically lent Mirvish $3.25 million, Mirvish personally has no legal obligation to ever pay Knoedler that money. If Mirvish ever gets possession of the paintings, then he has title to them already, and never needs to pay the $3.25 million that Knoedler is owed. Economically, the deal is the same as with the Silver Pollock: Mirvish paid a certain amount of money for a 50% economic stake in the artwork, on the understanding that he would receive 50% of the eventual sale proceeds. But legally, at least according to this complaint, Mirvish owns these artworks outright — he has title to both of the paintings in full, rather than just to some kind of 50% investment stake.
In a weird way, the tables are turned, with the Greenish and Square Pollocks: it’s Knoedler, rather than Mirvish, which has the speculative investment interest. And so by the logic of the Silver Pollock, now that the works aren’t being actively shopped any more, Knoedler should be able to retrieve from Mirvish the $3.25 million it lent him, and zero out the whole deal. Except, of course, Mirvish doesn’t see it that way: he has no interest at all in repaying those loans. In fact, he wants to take possession of both paintings without repaying the loans.
Once again, Mirvish conjures up an invisible contract, under which Knoedler was obliged to hand over the paintings to Mirvish if it ever stopped trying to sell the paintings. It’s hard to see why Knoedler would ever enter into such a contract while also being owed $3.25 million in non-recourse loans: after all, the minute it gives Mirvish the paintings, it can basically kiss that $3.25 million goodbye.
Indeed, if there was some kind of implied contract between Mirvish and Knoedler, it was surely that Knoedler would never just hand the paintings over to Mirvish and receive nothing in return for its 50% economic stake in the works. Both parties entered into this deal in a spirit of financial speculation, and both parties thought of themselves as having an equal share in the works. The complaint says that “equity and good conscience require that Knoedler deliver the Greenish Pollock and Square Pollock to Mirvish” — but there’s nothing equitable about that outcome whatsoever, where Mirvish ends up with 100% of the paintings, and Knoedler ends up in the hole to the tune of $3.25 million.
Knoedler is bust, now; it will never reopen. Its liabilities exceed its assets, but among those assets is a 50% economic stake in two Mirvish Pollocks. Those Pollocks are basically unsellable at this point, given their Rosales provenance, and in Mirvish’s eyes, that means the 50% economic stake is worth zero, even though (he says that ) he’s convinced the paintings are genuine.
The whole thing would stink of Mirvish trying to kick Knoedler and Freedman while they’re down — an investor trying to take advantage of their misfortunes by getting 50% of two (alleged) Pollocks for free. Except, that is, for the fact that Mirvish is using Freedman’s lawyer. Which means that the real story is more complicated still.
In any event, this lawsuit is a rare glimpse into a side of the art world which is very rarely seen — a purely mercenary world of co-investments and speculative bets, where stakes in artworks are bought and sold with an eye to making many millions of dollars in profit should a convenient hedge-fund manager turn up brandishing a $17 million check. It’s a world which is deliberately kept very secret from the buyers of the art: if you’re a gallery trying to sell a painting for $17 million, you’re not exactly going to advertise the fact that you bought it for $950,000 just five years earlier. But that’s the thing about the art world: there is literally no limit to how big the mark-ups can get. And it’s a world where the most successful dealers are the ones who can deal in established names like Pollock, and still try to lock in a sale price at a double-digit multiple of what they paid.