Afghanistan challenge is not to create “western-style” democracy

March 12, 2010


Ahmad Shah is a Afghan social entrepreneur and human rights activist living in London. He is currently studying MSc in International Business Economics at the University of Westminster. The opinions expressed are his own. –

An oft-heard refrain holds that Afghanistan is a “graveyard of empires” where corruption and violence are endemic; a land that never had a strong central government, and cannot be democratised. While perhaps flattering to Afghan pride of strength, these half-truths bear little relation to reality.

It is true that Afghans are fiercely independent, and that Pashtun precepts concerning honor are more sacred than life itself. It is also true that no outside power has ever succeeded in subjugating Afghanistan. None of this means Afghanistan is destined to remain a failed state.

In fact, for much of the 20th century Afghanistan had a strong central government. Corruption may have always existed, but until recently it was not the centrepiece of Afghanistan’s economy or society. Under King Zahir Shah, who ruled from 1933 to 1973, Afghanistan was stable and progressive, and while not a wealthy country, it was certainly not one of the poorest.

So how did Afghanistan come to its present predicament? In brief, Soviet intervention destroyed the nation’s fabric of central government. However over the last eight years corruption and injustices against the civilian population not only destroyed the fabric of local tribal governance but completely devastated Afghanistan as a nation.

Until 1973, Afghanistan was peaceful and sovereign, with capable and respected police forces, national army, educational institutions and health facilities, under a constitutional monarchy. In 1973, Dauod Khan, a Soviet sympathizer, overthrew King Zahir Shah and six years later the Soviets invaded.

This set in motion a chain of events whose consequences are still with us. When the last Soviet-backed government fell in 1992 and the U.S. turned its attention elsewhere, Afghanistan descended into chaos and civil war.

Therefore, Afghanistan’s challenge is not to create a “western-style democracy” but to restore what existed not long ago. Grand corruption, which began as a plague on the Afghan government, has spread like a virus throughout society.

According to Transparency International, Afghanistan is now the second most corrupt country on earth. It has become increasingly difficult for any legitimate business to function normally. Honest entrepreneurs face constant demands for bribes from government officials, and in the extreme, risk murder for resisting blackmail, refusing bribes or competing with the economic interests of powerful officials.

That is why a small number of privileged, connected elites have accumulated staggering wealth, while 99 percent of the legitimate, productive business sector struggles merely to survive.

During the period of conflict and war that began in the early 1970s, the late Haji Allah Nazar Dustukhel – a prominent parliamentarian, tribal elder, and entrepreneur – remained in Afghanistan. As a member of parliament, he was an outspoken critic of Soviet intervention and was imprisoned for almost a decade.

After his release, he avoided politics and developed businesses to create jobs in his native country. He refused to support the Soviet backed regime in Kabul despite offers of various high ranking positions by the then Afghan President the late Dr. Mohammad Najibullah. Others fled to pursue safer lives abroad and most of these “fair weather nationalists” have now returned with some of them exploiting their public offices for yet more personal enrichment.

Despite this impeccable legacy, during the last few years even the late Allah Nazar’s heirs have become victims of Afghanistan’s culture of corruption and impunity. On Nov 1, 2008 his grandson, Mohammad Ashraf Dustukhel, was murdered as his car passed by the President’s office and the Ministry of Defense, just a few meters from a police precinct near a police check point. Sixteen months later, the case remains unsolved.

Although the motives and identities of those who killed him remain unknown, one thing is clear: Ashraf Dustukhel was a businessman continuing on his grandfather’s tradition of honest business, doing well and doing good for Afghanistan. One can only assume that for certain powerful interests, doing well and doing good are now zero-sum endeavors. If the police are helpless to solve a murder literally in their own front yard, one must wonder if the reasons go beyond bad luck or ineptitude.

By themselves, unsolved murders do not mark a society in crisis. When combined with other disturbing trends, such as the arbitrary abrogation of private property rights of the “unconnected” and rampant official corruption, a more disturbing picture emerges. The late Ashraf Dustukhel’s family, along with many others, has had their land expropriated without due process or legal authority by high ranking officials in Maidan Province and Central Kabul.

State-owned land has been sold to mysterious buyers at bargain prices. Similarly, the late Ashraf’s business partners absconded with his funds. Despite the recent resignation of the head of the Afghan Senate, and the new assertiveness of Parliament in rejecting Karzai appointees, real progress requires more systemic changes.

High-ranking public officials must be required to publicly disclose in writing, under oath, their personal and family assets (as is done by most elected and senior appointed officials in Western countries).

Rent-seeking and demands for bribes must be investigated and prosecuted according to the law, regardless of the subject’s prominence or connections. Finally, we will know that Afghanistan is well on its way to restoring stability and civil society when its citizens are not gunned down with impunity before the eyes of the police.


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History is evident that without justice no country can have prosperty and political stability. Peace can only come in afghanistan if there is a political willingness and the international community to provide justice to afghans. The murder of Ashraf dustukhel is really a great injustice.

Posted by Ulfat Khan | Report as abusive

The security situation in Afghanistan is worsening every passing day. Implanting a western style democracy has clearly failed in Afghanistan. This is time to work on more traditional alternative policies in order to make Afghanistan more secure. Afghanistan’s neighbours should be persuaded to stop their proxy battles.
I always thought Kabul is a more secure place, the story of the murder of Ashraf has completely gobsmacked me. More action should be taken to eradicate corruption and stop injustices. Official impunity has reached intolerable levels. It is not right that murder cases are not dealt properly, the case of Ashraf should be resolved.

Posted by Alan Becker | Report as abusive

“The ameer rules with an iron fist; this is justified because I have to rule an iron people” – King Abdur Rahman.
You say the ‘the last eight years corruption and injustices against the civilian population not only destroyed the fabric of local tribal governance but completely devastated Afghanistan as a nation.’ From 1992-1996 there was also corruption and injustices against the civilian population, under a different style of government. I can name many times this has happened and the Afghanistan People have bounced back (Alexander the Great, the Mongols, even the PDPA). For a people who are mostly rural, isolated from the government by terrain, and with a tribal affiliation that defines them and protects them, how corrupt the government is does not matter. What does matter is how to stop this epidemic of ‘graveyard of empires’.
The delicate gray area between traditional political stability and western style democracy must be treaded on lightly. Internally Afghanistan politics has transformed from a Monarchy to a Republic to a Theocracy and back to a Republic in a short 37 years. The gray area is simple enough that the QST (Quetta Shura Taliban) have been able to implement shadow governments successfully since 2002. The Quetta Shura Taliban in Southern Afghanistan: Organization, Operations, and Shadow Governance says, “the Taliban shadow governance structures is significant, not only in its ability provide justice, security, and dispute resolution, but because these structures are more effective than anything the Afghan government or international community have been able to muster” (Dressler and Forsberg 7).
For any type of power to change the internal works of a country so independent and war torn is difficult and time consuming, eating up money and lives.

Posted by B.C. McLeod | Report as abusive

That is the kind of thinking that is needed, we cannot expect to impose a secular western system on Afghanistan. I just hope for the sake of the people that stability can be restored sooner rather than later.

Posted by Steven Cutts | Report as abusive

Karzai should be supported during the upccoming peace talks. The global consensus today is that there is no military solution to the Afghan problem. The west should accept it as a fact that they can not force Afghans to adopt their style of government and I agree with the writer that western style democracy is not a workable option in Afghanistan. The only way forward now is to support Karzai to have peace in Afghanistan.
Similarly Karzai should also prove that he is a real statesman and national interests of Afghanistan are more important than anything else to him. Karzai should do more to stop administrative corruption, put an end to the culture of official impunity and set mechanisms through which Afghans can have justice. It is important for peace that injustices against Afghans should be stopped. The writer by mentioning the murder of Ashraf Dustukhel has highlighted a very sad example about injustices with Afghans, who want to work for the prosperity of their country. I liked this statement in the article; “If the police are helpless to solve a murder literally in their own front yard, one must wonder if the reasons go beyond bad luck or ineptitude.”

Posted by Ryan Young | Report as abusive

Afghanistan is proving to be a failure as a functioning state despite the billions spent and thousands killed in a vague hope of establishing the so called “democracy”. A democracy where majority of the government officials are either previous warlords or the so called technocrats who are all busy in accumulating their wealth through bribes and sometimes extortion. The tragedy of Ashraf is the tip of the iceberg in a country where every decent person feels threatened by the same people who are supposed to be protecting them.Bringing the murderers of Ashraf to justice can be a good starting point for the government to show its resolve in dealings with the un-justices suffered by its citizens on daily basis.

Posted by zia urrehman | Report as abusive

The only winners in the last 9 years in Afghanistan have been government officials. Media everyday reports the level of corruption in Afghanistan, still no one is punished. Government officials have been big time home runners with alot of wealth and hey, for most of them the homes are in Dubai!
Injustices against the Afghan civilians are happening before the eyes of the UN and in the presence of international troops and still nothing is done to stop them. International troops themselves have been responsible for civilian casualties.I agree with the writer that at least the murders before the eyes of the police should be stopped.

Posted by Sabir Zaidi | Report as abusive

I found something on the web, apparently has some relevance to this article  ?ncat=an&nid=1089&ad=24-12-2008

Afghans demand arrest of Dustukhel’s killers

KABUL (PAN): Over hundred Afghans living in UK demonstrated in front of 10 Downing Street demanding bringing the assassins of Mohammad Ashraf Dustukhel to justice. “Justice for Ashraf Dustukhel” was the slogan of the day. The demonstrators said that providing security to the people was the responsibility of the government, however ironically prominent Afghan businessmen are being murdered in Kabul in public areas, which should have been safe. Mohammad Ashraf Dustukhel and his family’s contribution to the Afghan economy and the significant correlation between economic development and political stability were motioned. The demonstrators stated that either the government should bring Mohammad Ashraf Dustukhel’s assassins to justice or it should accept that the government is so weak that it can not provide security to innocent civilians even in front of the President’s office and the Ministry of Defence or else the government should clearly agree that their law enforcement agencies were involved in the murder of the Afghan businessman. The demonstrators also said that if the perpetrators of Mohammad Ashraf Dustukhel are not brought to justice then not only will they continue protesting in various cities but many Afghan businessmen would also be forced to transfer their investments abroad. A memorandum signed by over 400 Afghans, residing in the UK, British Citizens and concerned citizens of other European nations was handed over at the British Prime Minister’s residence. It specifically requested Prime Minister Gordon Brown to press the Afghan Government to solve the case of the murder of Mohammad Ashraf Dustukhel and bring the perpetrators to justice.

Posted by Ryan Young | Report as abusive

As an Afghan, I am hopeful and support the writer’s opinion that Afghanistan is not “destined to remain a failed state”. There is a lot of Awareness and willingness among the Afghan youth to contribute, towards the Economic Devolopment and Political Normalisation of Afghanistan. Injustices against the civilian population of Afghanistan have reached acute level: The Afghan youth must raise it’s voice against any injustice, commited against any person, in any part of Afghanistan. I praise Ahmadshah for raising the case of the murder of Ashraf Dustukhel, on this platform and am optimistic that this case will be solved soon Inshallah.

Posted by Arafat Khan | Report as abusive

Is there any one who is not aware of the Afghan history? No govt. can be installed in Kabul without the consent of Pashtoons. King Zahir Shah and his predecessors were Pashtoons. The Pashtoons have allergy against the foreigners, and I mean foreigners not only from other countries but those who are of a different tribe. Unless Karzai orders the exit of foreign forces, Afghanistan is unlikely to see peace in the near future. The Clintonians in the Obama group are know to be like bull tarriers, once they bite they do not let go easily. The trick is to hit the tarrier in the head to get rid of it. The Afghan Amirs have done it before and may have to resort to this. Almost sixty millions Pathans on both side of the border would unite and assist the withdrawl of foreign forces. The alternatives are not very peaceful for the uninvited guests. The charge of corruption is a diversion. The author is living in the UK and by now should be aware of the corruption scandal of the current labor Govt. Afghanistan is not bad.
My suggestion for the author would be to stay in the UK as long as you can, for back home once again Afghanistan is not the beautiful land of orchards but instead its valleys of death are once again active as they were in the 18th 19th and 20th century.

Posted by rex minor | Report as abusive

Here I was able to read a well-written and documented article about the justice and human rights situation in Afghanistan. The story of Ashraf Dustukhel is the type of case that the western media should present to their public more often, someone being mudered in front of the President’s office before the eyes of the police and over a year later the case is unsolved- the crime of the victim was doing honest business in a western installed capitalist democracy.
B.C Mcleod in his comment above has written that there were injustices and corruption in Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996. Mr Mcleod you need to read books with correct information about Afghanistan. It seems that you do not know that from 1992 to 1996 there was a civil war going on in Afghanistan. After being the hot spot for the Soviet Union and USA cold war, Afghanistan became the ground for the proxy wars of our neighbours. Yep there were injustices and nobody denies the civil war of 1992-96. You have to accept that in the last 9 years the west showed false dreams of nation building, democracy, justice and gave hope of a better future for our many generations to follow. The fact is that Afghans have only seen injustices, corruption, innocents being framed and sent to Bagram/Pulei Charkhi/Guantanamo only to be released years later with an apology. Western governments are spending billions and young western soldiers are sacrificing their lives because their politicians are not agreeing that they had been wrong and are wrong with their policies in Afghanistan.
Rex Minor; I support Karzai only for the cause of stability and peace of Afghanistan. Karzai also has to prove that he will not compromise on national interest and bring as the author has mentioned positive “systemic changes”. Mr Minor it is not about Pashtoon and non-Pashtoon, we are all one AFGHAN.

Posted by Ajab Gul | Report as abusive

The article shows that the author,a human rights activist, is either passing his message about the level of injustices by powerful officials or is trying to resolve the case of Ashraf Dustukhel. Irrelevant of the aim of the author, the fact is that the murder of Ashraf Dustukhel expresses the high level of official impunity within Afghanistan. We are only seeing the rise of a culture by the western back government in which corrupt officials are rewarded, praised and promoted.
If Afghans mention something to the UN, organizations who call themselves advocates of human rights and the international community then they would try to ignore by saying that the government in Kabul is independent and sovereign.
Where is that sovereignity when innocent villagers are collectively killed through airstrikes in Kunduz, Uruzgan, Laghman and around the country? Where is that sovereignity when homes are raided by international troops and innocent men are arrested? If the west wants to have a developed and stable Afghanistan then they should accomplish the mission completely; they should support the Karzai administration in eradicating official corruption and putting an end to official impunity. If the willingness to make Afghanistan more secure and stable for Afghans exists then resolving the case of the murder of Ashraf Dustukhel will be an excellent starting point, as this is a case which has taken place in front of the President’s office. Corrupt officials involved in such crimes should not only be exposed but punished.

Posted by lawangeen mohmand | Report as abusive

Those involved in the murder of Ashraf Dustukhel should be given examplry punishment. The government in Kabul should immediately put an end to official impunity. Why was Ashraf Dustukhel murdered? This murder seems to be a barbaric and ruthless act and the fact that it happened in front of the President’s office in the presence of police makes it very intriguing. How is it possible that someone’s car comes under fire in such a sensitive place and the police have no idea about those involved in it?
The resolution of such cases and the punishment of the criminals involved in these crimes is important to bring peace and stability in Afghanistan.

Posted by James Thomson | Report as abusive

A good article by Afghan writer and tells the story of injustices against Afghans from an Afghan’s view. The author says ‘we will know that Afghanistan is well on its way to restoring stability and civil society when its citizens are not gunned down with impunity before the eyes of the police’

If the case of Ashraf Dustukhel is not resolved then it will be a sufficient example that a government does not exist. It is hard to believe that after over a year the case of someone being murdered in front of the President office and the Defence Ministry is not investigated and the criminals are not punished. As an Afghan I am losing the very little hope that I had in the current system.

Posted by Abbas Zadran | Report as abusive

Rex Minor;;Don’t you know that it is Secretary of State Hillary Clinton peace loving team which is pushing Karzai for reform? Clinton team in the Obama Group are the only ones who are working hard and want to have a stable Afghanistan for Afghans. It is Karzai who will have to listen and bring good people in government so that finish corruption.

Posted by Anwar Ahmadzai | Report as abusive

Yes, before any support Karzai and government become honest n removing corruption. saying is one thing doing and action is another thing.

Hillary Clinton team good job n trying to make reforms and good governance n AFG.

Posted by zmarai wardak | Report as abusive

Every one reading these article and comments will surely be worried about the current situation of Afghanistan specially those afghans who are living abroad .
the case of Mr Ashraf is a big loss for the people of afghanistan ,for the business community and for his relatives and friends .it has been two since but there is no such progress and it means there is no government.
i am a young enterprenuer and the founder of SFC INTERNATIONAL currently doing business in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Today in Afghanistan security is worsening every passing day crime rate is increasing day by day ,corruption is at its peak, kdnapping and taking ransom is common. the whole economy is in the hands of 5-6 businessmen .
there is no justice at any level ,law is only for the poor weak . for example a small businessman has to pay full tax and tarrif but for a powerful businessman has to pay less or even he is exempted.
If you want to grow bigger than you have to give share to mafia if you are doing any business i think the fault lies in the government machinery because it is run by those old people who have destroyed Afghanistan and again busy in destroying it so its the time that the youth come and take over this situation. the youth i8s intelligent and i am hopeful that they can handle it and place Afghanistan in the list of developing countries.
if the old system carry on Afghanistan will suffer and it will compell the business community to shift there businesses to other countries so before this happens government should make serious structural changes bring the youth in front and i am hopeful that if the government takes quick actions and provide security and give confidence to the the business community and to those living abroad so that they come and work for their country and live a secure life in their home land.

Posted by Zabi Bahar | Report as abusive

you can’t go to Afghanistan Zabi Bahar, becoz u want to live abroad. In Afghanistan our national unity depends on support Karzai. Karzai is head and our religion teach to loyal to Head of State. All of us shud be loyal head of state other problems for example corruption, security and other small things would solve itself later.
Afghanistan system respect old, old is gold. Young no experience and young who live away from country no understand Afghanistan culture.
U go Afghanistan, u do business n Afghanistan and u’ll have no problem. government want develop business. Ashraf case very sad but now everything improved.

Posted by rahim paktyani | Report as abusive

agree with the human rights activist writer and the comment makers about security no good. also agree that those involved in murder of ashraf dustukhel should be punished by the government.
but can we forget the sacrifices by international community especially the US. ppl like David Miliband, Richard Holbrooke, Hillary Clinton working hard for Afghanistan. Money given to Afghan government n army training given n soldiers sacrificing lives for better future of Afghans. it is Afghan government doing corruption and injustices. US telling them to stop corruption and they making excuses.

Posted by Yama Naseri | Report as abusive

The current insecurity and on-going societal disorders in Afghanistan is not a product of a year or so. It stems from the set off of Weapons of Strategic Reach (A period of rivalry between the West and Russia, when they could not agree on dividing the world after defeating Hitler). Therefore, unless these powers genuinely do not want to build Afghanistan and forget their Old, New and Current Games, Afghanistan will never enjoy development and prosperity. Afghanistan has always been a victim of ideologies and a battlefield for testing new technologies. Lets hope, it one day be a conjunction of civilisations for the geo-political position it has. However, one must admit, Kerzai’s government is a well-balanced and comparatively better than its predecessors.


Posted by Walid Halimi | Report as abusive

The first order of the day should be to get the foreign military out of Afghanista!!
The foreign military presence in Afghanistan has always destabilised the country. The strong tribal structure in Afghanistan and the Pashtoon land in Pakistan is the living evidence unmatched by any other country in the world. United they were able to repel the aggressors throughout their history, Despite many colloborators from within the Russians departed, the Brirs lost the two Afghan wars, stayed on in their cantonments on the now Pakistan side for a century hoping to make further inroads over time. The so called Alexander the Great took a diversion and hastened to leave the country without even an overnight stay. The old Afghan country was blessed by none other than the Prophet of Islam (pbuh) himself. The people of Afghanistan do not need foreigners to provide security in the country.
Mr Karzai is not the ideal leader, but in present times is there an ideal leader in other country in the world, Mr Obama, Mr Brown, Mr Sarkozi, Mr Barlasconi, Mr Zardari ? My God the afghans are lucky to have Mr Karzai who has to deal with Talibans on one side and those who collaborated with the Russians and the former US administration on the other side. On top of that he is endeavouring for the continuance of financial and civilian assistance in order to reconstruct the country so that it is economically viable country in the 21st century.
The US has a broader strategy of sorrounding the new Super power Chima and Afghanistan should avoid getting involved in the latest neoconservative strategy of the US thinktank. They need to get closer to Iran, Pakistan(NWFP)and other cenral Asian countries as well as Turkey. This is the emerging triangle of the 21st century world.

Posted by rex minor | Report as abusive

V.V.good report. Official impunity is the biggest problem in Afghanistan. The US, British and west shud not allow its money and sacrifice of soldiers go waste for a thief government in Afghanistan. If foreign forces leave then this western backed government and its leaders can not survive. Karzai government should respect west for protecting them.
….The thing well-balanced in Karzai government is distribution of stolen money and power among powerful technocrats and warlords.
…. It is not about who is good or bad leader, the question is about no law and no justice. Zardari not a good leader but independent judiciary following him and his corruption, same true about Burlesconi and there is rule of law in the UK and and the US as well. In Afghanistan, the more crime they do in government and the more powerful they become and no law to ask them anything.

Posted by Omar Zurmati | Report as abusive

@ O Zaman
Please do not worry about the US money. The US is just printing notes, as long as the printed dollars are not returned to the states. The US is bankrupt, they are taking credit from the saudis and the chinese. Since when did you have law and the justice in Afghanistan. The tribal leaders have always maintained law and order in the country. If you are referring to Kabul then you should blame it on the Americans and other armies who have taken over the security responsibility and besides there are NGO’s and the private security companies.
The talk about corruption in Afghanistan and Pakistan is a diversion. The Govts. in that part of the world are no more corrupt than those in Europe. Mr Karzai and his Govt. is not stealing taxpayers money, whereas, the UK prime minister has been claiming false expenses and was paid from the tax payers money. Mr Zardari also did not embazzle tax payers money.

Posted by rex minor | Report as abusive

@ the author, well written and important issues such as security, corruption, justice and many more discussed.

@ Rex Minor, stop this balderdash. You are trying to pretend yourself as an Anglo-Saxon who does not know much about Afghanistan. You are not the one to make judgments about Zardari as Pakistan has an independent judiciary and the people of Pakistan know their leaders well. You also do not have any understanding about the US economy, capital markets and the basic fundamentals of the global credit markets. Without any doubt, the human and economic sacrifices of the United States of America and the Nato allies were only to develop Afghanistan. The wrong that happened was that they gave power to corrupt and indecent people. They have realised their mistakes and now want to remove corruption, improve governance and justice processes for the people of Afghanistan.
Do not worry about individual cases of corruption in the US and the UK, the justice system in our world is strong and nobody is immune. Impunity is the problem of the western allied government in Afghanistan. Gordon Brown saved the world from a global financial melt down and is a great leader. President Obama is the best that we ever had in the history of the United States and he does what nobody else can do or had been able to do. President Obama will accomplish the mission in Afghanistan and he will remove corruption, bring good governance, improve the justice system and remove indecent officials. If he fails in Afghanistan then Democrats may not win any elections over the next one decade.

Posted by Tom Rynski | Report as abusive

@Tom Rynaki
I do admire optimists and I do hope that all your prophecies come true. However, most of the times the illusions remain illusions. We are going to get rid of Gordon Brown next month, who in your opinion has saved the world. The Obama syndrom is going to haunt the world until his term expires. The new US president is an imposter, and this is becoming more and more apparent to the people who had hopes in his campaign slogan”Yes We Can”. Perhaps it would be worth the time to read the latest chapter in the economic text books, to understand the melt down of the housing market and the criminal activities of the US financial institutions which started the global financial crisis. The latest chapter is not with the press yet so you would have to have some patience. Try not to talk over the heads of the people without understanding the facts which people are experiencing. I have no apetite for slogans such as “lead the world” and “leadership claims”. The US is a declining power and is following the path of previous empires,nothing to be ashamed of. Roman empire, the Soviets, the colonial powers etc. they all left the stage one by one. Now is the US turn, millions of citizens have no health coverage, out of date infrastructure, economy in ruins, no housing for the military within the country so they are kept in foreign lands, damaged manufacturing base, should go on. As far the UK, under labour te manufacturing base almost eroded and the real economy in tatters except for the Financial Casino in London.
Please let us stop for once, calling Afghan Official corrupt and ignoring the fact that almost all civil servents in the werld are not immune against this illness. If one were to call it an illness.
Have a nice day.

Posted by rex minor | Report as abusive

Mr Ahmad Shah has raised an important issue that corruption is on high peak in Afghanistan.It will not be uprooted untill there is complete justice in the country. Its really shame for Afghan Government and Police that they cant even find the gangs involved behind the Late Ashraf murder which occured infront of the President Palace. Last but not the least the Government should also fight against the kidnapping which is one of the main issue of the Country.

Posted by Imran Khan Dustukhel | Report as abusive