Fix immigration by next Thanksgiving

November 27, 2008

diana-furchtgott-roth1– Diana Furchtgott-Roth, former chief economist at the U.S. Department of Labor, is a senior fellow at the Hudson Institute. The opinions expressed are her own. —

The first Thanksgiving festival was celebrated in 1621 in Massachusetts by the Pilgrims, immigrants to America, out of gratitude for a plentiful harvest.

As we sit around our Thanksgiving tables this Thursday, almost all of us immigrants or their descendants, we’re reminded that one of President-elect Obama’s most important challenges will be to mend our broken immigration policy.

Instead of a rational immigration system, we have occasional raids by immigration officers on plants suspected of employing illegals. Then come deportations that may separate an undocumented parent and children whose birth in the United States made them citizens.

The most controversial facet of the immigration challenge is what to do about the estimated 12 million undocumented immigrants. Most are unlikely to return to their native lands, even in today’s tough economic climate.

Nor would we want them to do so. They work at jobs that few Americans choose to do, both in high-skill area—scientific and medical research, for instance—and in mundane yet essential low-skill jobs, such as gardening, washing cars, and cleaning.

In 2007, Congress did not pass President Bush’s comprehensive immigration proposals, supported by the Democratic leadership and many Republicans. Will Obama succeed where Bush failed?

Obama’s proposal mirrors the bill that failed: increased border protection; more visas for new immigrants; penalties for employers who hire undocumented workers; and eventual citizenship for undocumented workers already here, after payment of a fine. It would be a major improvement.

But with unemployment rising, if Congress won’t pass immigration reform, it could still improve the functioning of American labor markets with narrower action. It could authorize the Department of Labor to decide on its own the number of work permits and temporary visas to be issued each calendar quarter.

Every year, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), as instructed by law, issues 65,000 H-1b temporary visas for skilled workers. These lucky workers are certified by the Labor Department out of approximately 630,000 approved applications from employers. Immigrants who hold H-1b visas must return to their home countries when their jobs end.

Yet, as the numbers show, most applicants do not get a visa. Many skilled foreign college graduates who have been studying in America, often at American taxpayer expense, are denied access to American jobs. They must leave, taking their intellectual achievements and valuable skills with them.

Foreign workers benefit the American economy. They pay taxes. They keep laboratories and motels, high-tech shows and construction sites, running. They cannot if they are sent away.

For 2009, the H-1b visa cap of 65,000 was reached one week after the start of the application process on April 1, 2008. That represents a tiny part of the U.S. labor force of 154 million. Even if the quota were raised to 150,000, that would be less than one tenth of 1% of the labor force. Such a quota would still deny admission to the vast majority of prospective applicants who don’t apply due to the small likelihood of success.

Whereas Congress is ill-suited to change laws each time the economy goes up or down, the Labor Department has both the expertise to evaluate changing labor markets and the flexibility to adjust visa quotas. Congress should consider letting the Labor Department make quarterly decisions about how many visas to issue.

When unemployment rises, the Department would issue fewer visas; when it goes down, visas could be increased. The Department could manage visas without causing undue burden on U.S. workers or community facilities, such as schools and hospitals.

Allowing the Labor Department to adjust legal immigration every quarter would help America. President-elect Obama could leave behind the rancor and division over immigration that have plagued the Bush administration, and set a new tone for a new year. That would be something to be thankful for next Thanksgiving.

Diana Furchtgott-Roth can be reached at


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We currently have over 1.2 million U.S. workers unemployed. Is it true that foreign workers are filling jobs that U.S. workers don’t want? I don’t think so. The truth is that employers want cheap foreign labor. If employers offered decent wages and benefits, even for digging ditches, then American workers would do the job. We are not afraid to work, we just don’t want to live in a shack and have no health insurance.

Posted by Charles Lieber | Report as abusive

Trevor H,

Being merely a student, you need to defer to those with actual knowledge from the front line. Take it from me, these H1-B cheap imports are not “faster thinking kids”. I have worked with many over many years. In fact, quite the opposite. Management never realizes this until it is too late.

Another thing to think of, if “young” minds was all that management was looking for, every CS graduate would have several offers in hand when they graduate.

I know this is not the case since my own daughter graduated with a degree in CS with honors from a top University with an engineering class of thousands. She came highly recommended by all her professors, was also a TA in the CS department. On paper and in person she was ideal.

The graduates were on their own.

Another point, the Programmers guild is not full of disenfranchised students that never got jobs in CS. I don’t know much about the group but I do know that students simply move to other fields due to the lack of entry level jobs which are pretty much “reserved” for h1-B indentured sevants.

Also, I know of no case where all the older workers in a department were replaced by U.S. college student graduates. Surely there would be one case if the “quick mind” argument had any water.

In almost every case, the replacement was a pre-curser to sending those jobs offshore. Please think about this one, if you are a “student” and not an H1-B lobbyists in thin disguise.

Posted by Susan | Report as abusive

Trevor H (and Diana),

Thanks for responding. You can reach me through Programmers Guild in the future if you care to.

I looked at your links again and still could not draw a conclusion about wage trends. Somewhere I have trend data showing IT wages not keeping pace with inflation, and with many other professions, over the past several years.

a) What is your source of “less than 50% of H1b are IT professionals? It’s not possible to get a precise figure. But you made me work – I queried the FY2007 DOL LCA data by occupation and placed it here: 007_lca_occupations.html

The top six occupations, with by far the largest counts (first column) are:

117854 – programmer analyst – $56,144.66 (average)
38171 – software engineer – $70,923.57
22595 – computer programmer – $60,137.67
19159 – systems analyst -$59,014.06
12436 – project manager – $77,104.72
11761 – computer programmer analyst – $60,411.94

Furthermore the non-IT H1b are often higher-paid medical or management professionals. An average salary below $60k for a set of foreign workers that Industry deems as “essential” and “best and brightest, possessing skills that cannot be found in American workers” should seem suspect.

CHALLENGE: Show me any IT job that an employer claims they must bring in an H-1b worker to fill because there are “no Americans” – then advertise that job in full page ad in NY Times with a salary of $200k – and you better have a large PO Box, because it will become apparent that H-1b is “all about the money.”

b) You claim that 80% OF JOBS NEVER GET POSTED anywhere. If 80% of the time employers are able to meet their IT staffing needs without even advertising the position, what does that say about the “labor shortage crisis” that this author seems to believe prevails? I believe the lack of any classified ads for new grad Engineering/Computer Science in today’s major news publications gets to the core of the false need to bring in and retain foreign students.

What member of the Programmers Guild object to is flooding in foreign IT workers that displace Americans. Shouldn’t Americans be given preference for American jobs? The largest users of H-1b are Indian consulting firms – and they boast that their competitive advantage in winning bids against American consulting firms is that they pay their H1-b workers 25% less then they would have to pay Americans. This is documented in my July 2008 letter to Congressman Lungren, linked from

I object to you nonsense about older people not being able to handle IT work. I’d be interested if you would state an age.

How do you explain that in other professions people with gray hair are the most respected and get the highest salary? Would you say that because being a doctor, lawyer, CEO, congressman, etc are “non-routine, complex, intellectually challenging,” that these people should retire at age 42?

Think about this. The kindly American Indians took pity on those immigrant Pilgrims as they faced their first winter here. They introduced the Pilgrims to food that was locally available and provided them with survival in their new land. In exchange the Native Americans were systematically exterminated by the white immigrants. Those who survived cholera, smallpox infested blankets and other unintended white man diseases were forced on a death march to uninhabitable lands no one wanted. To see the new immigrants as benign is to bend over so far as to place one’s head into one’s arse.

Posted by Paul | Report as abusive

It is often reported that relatively few American students pursue careers in engineering or computer science compared to students in Asia or India. The vast majority of students in these fields, both at American and foreign universities, are non-Americans with the Chinese and Indians dominating these fields. Pundits rationalize this phenomenon by asserting that an inferiority of primary and secondary math and science education in the United States leads to poor preparation for technical careers. Thus, the critics profess, American students either choose less rigorous fields or are unable to compete in the global marketplace for engineering talent. The possibility that American students make rational informed decisions regarding their career prospects is often ignored, and instead focus is placed on the perceived disparity in primary education.

While skilled foreign workers fill essential roles at American employers, the current immigration policies are flawed in their bias towards exploitation of immigrants at the expense of both the immigrant and the American workforce. Companies are not required to identify the best candidate or ensure that there is no qualified American that can fill the position. It is against the law, however, to pay the foreign workers less than the prevailing wage rate and use these workers to displace non-immigrant workers. Compliance monitoring is week at best, and attempts to litigate violations of the law have often resulted in court ordered reforms rather than monetary damages (see Santiglia v. Sun Microsystems 2005 Decision). Until modifications to existing laws are enacted which prohibit the displacement of qualified American workers and provide greater rights to immigrants with visas, both parties will be disadvantaged while executive management and the wealthy elite are enriched at their expense. ducation-and-immigration-in-america.html

Why does Ms. Furchtgott-Roth hesitate in just announcing her advocacy of slavery? She has already opposed trade protectionism, limits to immigration, and the minimum wage. Is it any wonder that our economy is failing?

Since the Refugee Act was enacted in 1980, everyone and their brother has tried find new reasons to flood the US with immigrants and depress labor rates. At the same time, we have gone from the greatest creditor nation to the the greatest debtor nation. A coincidence? I think not.

Posted by Harold Key | Report as abusive

I have regularly approached my Congressmen proposing that no visa be issued or renewed for a guest worker until the job is posted to a national database and with a protocol similar to USAJOBS for government jobs. The required posting time should be a function of the educational level required for the position; a requirement of a PhD or professional degree must be posted for a longer period than for one not requiring a high school diploma. Only US citizens or legal permanent residents could apply through the job system.

All applications for the job filed though that system would have to be processed and all qualified candidates interviewed before certification that there were no qualified candidates. Audits of the employer would insure that employers follow the procedure fairly. Only if no candidate is found meeting the specified requirements could an application be made for a guest worker.

Any guest worker for whom a visa petition is filed would be required to meet 100% of the stated job requirements. Any deviation would require that the job be reposted in the USA worker database.

The costs of developing and maintaing the job database would be recovered from posting costs.No employer who does not intend to hire a guest worker would be required to follow the certification of non-avaiablity of US worker procedure, but all workers hired by these exployers would be required to show they are US citizens or legal permanent residents. All companies, educational institutions, or governmental entities would be required to utilize the labor availablity certification; no exceptions should be made for any reason. In addition, the hiring preferences for disabled and nondisabled veterans of the US military should be mandated and enforced.

No current guest worker would be able to transfer his work authorization to a company who has not completed the certification of nonavailable worker within the previous month. All guest workers would be required to present themselves for visa review at the consulate within a specified period of time and would be required to appear for work in the US within a specific period of time. Individuals failing to do so, would have their job approval revoked with prejudice keeping them from reapplying for another position for at least one year.

Since employers refuse to voluntarily abide by the laws, draconian measures are need to protect US workers from the abuse of cheap imported labor.

Posted by Cee | Report as abusive

Has anyone ever thought about the fact that the American economy has been expanding at the rate of about 5% per year because of the influx of legal and illegal immigrants. These immigrants create demand for housing, goods, services and all that goes to expand an economy.

If immigration is a fact of life and we accept it sooner than later, would it not be in the interest of America to try to get the best and the brightest and the youngest of the perspective immigrants of the world….
Do away with limits on immigration, and setup a qualification based system. More qualified, more experienced, younger and workers in special professions should be given preference and invited to immigrate to the US. Not only will you get the best brains in the world to come over, you will also have the most innovative and hard working people who want to come to the US and work their ass of.

Just because someone is born in the US does not give them the right to expect not to have to compete for everything.

Posted by Nabeel Rae | Report as abusive

Diana Furchtgott-Roth was an economist for the department of labor? That explains a lot, like the complete lack of understanding mathematics.

Using a simple function called compounding, a population of 300 million growing at the seemingly petty rate of 2% will surpass 1 billion in 60 years. Quality of life has always be inversely proportional to population density.

Posted by Webspin | Report as abusive

It’s this kind of idiotic outlook that got us in this mess in the first place. I’m half second generation legal immigrant. This isn’t about immigration, it’s about what kinds of people you want in our post 911 country. I bring that up because it’s a little tough to have “homeland security” if any person who feels like it can walk in. Do you want people who A) obey and respect the United States’ laws, or B) open with breaking the law, not integrate into the existing culture but stay isolated, and then are forced to break more laws if they want to work and drive, because they certainly can’t get a Social Security number or a Drivers License. Why is it that if I go to any other country in the world, and have a kid, and try to live there without becoming a citizen or maintaining my visa I would be jailed or deported? What is with people who think this is a good idea here?

Because of our wealth, our high standard of living, we are now importing a true impoverished class. Turning a blind eye to it is allowing near slavery. They can’t be protected from predators because they are hiding, they are putting a HUGE financial burden on the system we pay for (you cannot claim with a straight face that someone who makes below minimum wage puts in enough taxes to pay for their drain on the hospitals, Food Stamps, courts, and other services), and causing harm to Americans by giving them undeserved financial troubles as Social Security Numbers are stolen and sold. Saying, “look, we did a half ass job on closing the borders and enforcing who is here legally, and it failed” does not naturally lead to “let’s let them in more easily. The Labor Department can control it!”

How about this? We actually enforce federal laws, deport anyone who is not here legally (within reason, in other words, let’s say they’re over 18 and not born here), fix the stupid Constitutional 14th amendment, section 1, to read “born here of a legal citizen,” and have your Labor Department actually figure out how to post that there are job openings where we can apply for them, instead of spewing the “…jobs Americans aren’t willing to do…” cliche? What happened in the 1950s? No one worked in motels? I guess the restaurants were horribly understaffed as well. What you’re doing is harming our working age children and unskilled labor by taking away their jobs.

Lastly, 12 million illegals? If people are coming in here illegally, not telling you and hiding from you, how do you magically come up with that number? From my perspective, that number seems horribly low. That number is closer to the amount living in California, without counting the rest of the country.

Mrs. Furchtgott-Roth, you didn’t do your job. You didn’t fix the unemployment for the citizens of this country, giving them the 21st century tools they needed to train and find jobs, and work with the other government agencies to adequately protect your citizens. Telling us now that the answer is to let your old department take care of this for us is simplistic and, well, “less-than-your-level-of-education.” But that’s just my opinion.

Posted by Bob Sandler | Report as abusive

This debate is so interesting for me. I used to work at an Architecture firm in AZ until the 31st of October, when they laid me off, because ‘I am a production person and there is nothing to produce’. Fair enough, right?

However, I do think it is interesting to note that the same firm kept two young Mexican architects employed in place of keeping me, an American, because their salary is 1/2 my salary. They told me in my exit interview that ‘they would have had to lay off TWO people if they wanted to keep me on the payroll’ (I don’t make that much, I make $45,000, not much for my five year degree and $100,000 dollars in private student loans, I know).

I was a very hard worker, diligent, thorough and conscientious…I worked my butt off for that firm, I KNOW that I did a fabulous job, every day, AND I was very good with clients (I am sure, in part, because I speak English).

The two Mexicans Architects who replaced me spent most of their time on Facebook or surfing the web, e-mailing their friends in Mexico and the US or on extended smoking breaks.

It is interesting to note, and I NEVER would have taken the job at that firm if I would have known this from the beginning, that the people in question are relatives of the main Project Manager at the firm.

So people can sit around all day wondering ‘why is the American economy in the *******?’ But as for me, I think I have it figured out…

Posted by Kiki | Report as abusive

I say we need another “Operation Wetback” just like in the 1950′s. Kick in doors, round them up,don’t just boot them across the border, but take them as far south on their coast as possible and let them off on an island along their coast. Let them become Mexico’s problem. Put our military on the border and start shooting. Our southern states are littered with backpacks used to haul pot and drugs up across the border. Theres plenty of hard working American’s out of work gladdy standing in line for the jobs these people have taken not to mention public money for medical, housing, education, food, etc. Why does everyone want to tip-toe around the topic?

Posted by Roundup_Logan | Report as abusive

ILLEGAL means they’re breaking the law. What is the law? Something we as good honest hard working citizens of this country have put in place to maintain rules by which EVERYONE who comes here have to play by. I’m sick of ILLEGALS getting a blind pass just to stay here and keep doing ILLEGAL things.

Posted by Roundup_Logan | Report as abusive

To those who support the ”qualified immigration” without a cap. You have no idea of how qualified EUROPEAN AND ASIAN graduates are !!!.

ONLY THE USA HAS MULTIPLE CHOICE exams !!! that’s garbage education, anybody who’s had a conversation with both a European and or Asian graduate together with a USA graduate, will quickly tell you how poor the education system is here in USA.

WHY ? well because most schools are private I mean Universities. It’s a business you pay and get a piece of paper… and drink beer for 4 years.

ALSO in highschools there’s alot of failed students abroad, there’s punishment, since elementry school.

UNLIKE the USA where a teacher cannot even slightly raise his voice to a student who has just recently commited a 20 person merder of classmates !!! Something wrong there ?? Sorry to tell it to you straight.

If immigration were lifted ALL USA trained staff would become the mexican immigrants cleaning toilets and the ”immigrants” would be the CEOs within a matter of 15 years.

TRUST ME ON THIS ONE. The foreign affairs etiquette of USA grads is very poor also. Too USA Centric.

Who am I anyways ? A USA born and raised citizen who’s studied and lived in Europe for many years.

Why does the USA President HAVE TO BE BORN in the USA ? well so he naturally is an advocate of USA Centric life, not know ANY foreign language and most likely come equipped with a faulty USA EDUCATION background..

Alot of Immigrants NOT born in USA are USA Citizens, and among them are the world’s richest and smartest people.
But we don’t want those geniuses running the white house, we’d rather have someone else ‘like us’ so we feel comfortable in our denial mode.

Let Labor try the job. Why not? It is self-evident that neither the State Department nor the ICE has been able properly to enforce the immigration laws. The US Congress has failed dismally to provide funds and positions and policies to do so. Impossible tasks levied on decent persons, whether employees or visitors, do naught but foster discouragement, discourtesy, disrespect, and law-breaking. One may suppose apathy if not criminally negligent indifference to the plights of legitimate visa-seekers and to the despairing victims of failed governments in both hemispheres. One must also suppose favors to feckless and greedy employers who flout the law and dare to claim the flag of freedom. Without them, illegal immigration would diminish. Organized labor and informed citizens as well as the real globalization of economics must surely support free (or freer) movement of labor as much as free movement of capital. Paramount to those freedoms, however, is the level playing field. No cloak of enterprise can excuse cheating the government, cheating the taxpayer, or cheating the hireling of his wage. An employer who pays one employee far less than another based on national origin breaks the law, probably cheats on his wife and shareholders, and ought to fear both civil and divine judgment.

Posted by MRJackson | Report as abusive

I am the “H1 guy” and would like to enlighten some of you.
I loved maths and Science since my childhood and naturally opted to be an engineer (no kid in India dreams to rob your jobs).
I worked with a top #2 consulting firm in the world .Honestly learned a lot from many good American Architects and Managers.I had few American colleagues just because they are “Citizens” were earning 10 times to what i get in India.With all the hardwork and talent I felt like a modern day slave because my company was charging its clients $100/hour but giving me $1000/month.
So anyone who’s crying for inequality beat this.

Top Myth busters
1)H1′s are NOT super skilled geniuses We are very simple hardworking people. even if were we would be modest.
2)Quality- Most of us are products of your very best universities (whom shall we blame?).In fact we need to get better scores than an American to get into these schools. If we are as Substandard as some of you claim then why will our clients employ us for years.(I am not working for a Charitable organization )
3)Displacing Jobs- I am partly guilty for this as i learned from my American Boss that the previous guy demanded 200/hr to do stupid C++ programming (greed Unlimited).if your born in this country blessed with so many resources and could not find ways to work then you are damn lucky cos u cant survive in any other country .Realistically H1′s issued in this entire Decade amount to less than 1% of American workforce and look at the companies created and value we create.Someone even commented that the recession was because of us “Sir we don’t buy homes we cant afford and go buy stupid things we dont plan to use.”
4)Burden to society-i pay all the Fedral and Social Security taxes as a citizen does but I didn’t use your education system or have hopes to use your Social Security when i am old. If you analyze the cost to benefit ratio i am a huge advantage to your country.
5)Fix the Immigration system cos it unfairly puts control into the hands of employers who just want more profit.
6)To migrate is natural or else we all would be in forests of Africa(Read the History of early man).Lastly don’t be a Hypocrite and hate all Immigrant’s cos they came from a poor country. Most of your ancestors who build this country were poor and jumped into a boat for a better life except they didn’t had the INS or visa limitations at that time.


Posted by kumar | Report as abusive

IMMACT90 removed the requirement for H-1B and L-1 non-immigrants to maintain a foreign residence — this provision removed the requirement for employers to pay travel Per-Diem to non-immigrant workers.

The travel Per-Diem is the stimulus dividend that the local economies enjoy while the non-immigrant accrues equity in her home country.

Econ 101

David Ricardo:
The Iron Law of Wages, 1817

It is when the market price of labour exceeds its natural price, that the condition of the labourer is flourishing and happy, that he has it in his power to command a greater proportion of the necessaries and enjoyments of life, and therefore to rear a healthy and numerous family. When, however, by the encouragement which high wages give to the increase of population, the number of labourers is increased, wages again fall to their natural price, and indeed from a reaction sometimes fall below it.

When the market price of labour is below its natural price, the condition of the labourers is most wretched: then poverty deprives them of those comforts which custom renders absolute necessaries. It is only after their privations have reduced their number, or the demand for labour has increased, that the market price of labour will rise to its natural price, and that the labourer will have the moderate comforts which the natural rate of wages will afford. do-wages.html

Posted by weaver | Report as abusive

The H1 system floods the labor market. Of course it brings the overall wages down.
There are enough good programmers in this country but the truth is the american companies dont want to pay the salary the workforce here demands.

Posted by FormerH1 | Report as abusive

The bussiness world doesn’t discriminate whether American or alien. It only chooses which best fits into its Bussiness. People are saying immigrants are displacing jobs. Why dont you work hard more than the immigrants and get your jobs back??? Do you want to get paid more being lazy? Majority of America’s success and dominance comes from immigrants from past several years. And they made this country proud and land of opportunity. Things will workout for the successful people but not because of their country’s origin. Since you are losing job you can’t blame other people. You should have will to get back the jobs with your talent. Thats the solution. I am proud of America as I come across great people here. Interestly their anchesters are from different parts of the world.

Posted by H1B Victim | Report as abusive

Diana Furchtgott-Roth was a member of the Bush administration. The Bush administration will be judged as the most incompetent administration in the history of the United States. So here we have an ex-Bush economic advisor giving us more economic advice??? What she advocates, if implemented, will destroy the indigenous engineering infrastructure of this country. The market will become flooded with cheap H-1B labor. The H-1B labor entering this country is not the best and brightest. The H-1Bs now entering this country have average skills. After the truly best and brightest are driven out by the cheap H-1B labor, this country will be left with an inferior engineering base. Furchtgott-Roth and her brethren ideologues have brought the U.S. economy to its knees. Your ideology trumps plain common sense. It is apparent that any special interest group can write a check to the Hudson group and have their agenda spread by member(s) of the Hudson institute who will say anything for a few bucks.

Posted by Max | Report as abusive

By limiting the number of immigration visas issued every year there is a backlog of thousands of immigrants, many of them already here, living in the shadows of society.
I say before new visas to people overseas are issued, legalize people who have been waiting 10+ years in line, who have children who are US citizens, who have paid taxes, bought cars, homes, and that are essential to the US economy.
By deporting these individuals (the non-criminal ones) there are many social and economical reprecusions: 1. Citizens(in the thousands), children of those immigrants who will grow up to hate and be resentful of the fact that their father or mother were taken from them when they needed them the most (during chilhood). This will come accompanied by all the social pathologies, specially crime and a sub-class of people who will never be mainstream.
2. The continuous economic maladies like drop in sales of goods and services, created by the abandonment of homes and communities that they occupy (no matter if they rent or own, taxes are collected on those properties, and sales tax is collected in the items they consumed). Because they are already a part of the economy, taken them out of the economic cycle creates a void.
Just cross-check the States and cities with stringent immigration policies and you will find that they are the ones that fare lower in the economic scale.
I am sorry to open your eyes, but the answer to our economic woes is already here. Legalize the people who are here and they will have the confidence to consume and the dignity to become members of society. Their children will become law abiding citizens.
There is still time to prevent the destruction of the many lives of US citizens/illegal immigrant children in our country. For those of you who are “compassionate”, this is a perfect time for real Compassion.

Posted by Athena | Report as abusive

Illegal immigrants are not required to leave their children in the US when they
move back to their native country. Why do you believe that they have to do so?

If illegal immigrants become legalized, employers can not abuse them anymore.
Employers will simply hire the next wave of illegals. Then the newly legalized
, formerly abused(underpaid) immigrants will join the unemployment, public assistance rolls.

Illegal immigration and H1-B foreign workers is about cheap labor. Nothing more.

You are also confusing cause and effect with respect to illegal immigrants flocking
to more robust cities. They flock to more robust cities because the city is robust. The
city did not become robust because they flocked there.

Posted by Susan | Report as abusive