Cops scan social media to help assess your ‘threat rating’

December 12, 2014
minority-report1

Tom Cruise in Minority Report. Courtesy of 20th Century Fox

A national spotlight is now focused on aggressive law enforcement tactics and the justice system. Today’s professional police forces — where officers in even one-stoplight towns might have body armor and mine-resistant vehicles — already raise concerns.

Yet new data-mining technologies can now provide police with vast amounts of surveillance information and could radically increase police power. Policing can be increasingly targeted at specific people and neighborhoods — with potentially serious inequitable effects.

One speaker at a recent national law enforcement conference compared future police work to Minority Report, the Tom Cruise film set in 2054 Washington, where a “PreCrime” unit has been set up to stop murders before they happen.

While PreCrime remains science-fiction, many technology advances are already involved with predictive policing — identifying risks and threats with the help of online information, powerful computers and Big Data.

New World Systems, for example, now offers software that allows dispatchers to enter in a person’s name to see if they’ve had contact with the police before.  Provided crime data, PredPol claims on its website that  its software “forecasts highest risk times and places for future crimes.” These and other technologies are supplanting and enhancing traditional police work.

Public safety organizations, using federal funding, are set to begin building a $7-billion nationwide first-responder wireless network, called FirstNet. Money is now being set aside. With this network, information-sharing capabilities and federal-state coordination will likely grow substantially. Some uses of FirstNet will improve traditional services like 911 dispatches. Other law enforcement uses aren’t as pedestrian, however.

One such application is Beware, sold to police departments since 2012 by a private company, Intrado. This mobile application crawls over billions of records in commercial and public databases for law enforcement needs. The application “mines criminal records, Internet chatter and other data to churn out … profiles in real time,” according to one article in an Illinois newspaper.

Here’s how the company describes it on their website:

Accessed through any browser (fixed or mobile) on any Internet-enabled device including tablets, smartphones, laptop and desktop computers, Beware® from Intrado searches, sorts and scores billions of commercial records in a matter of seconds-alerting responders to potentially deadly and dangerous situations while en route to, or at the location of a call.

Crunching all the database information in a matter of seconds, the Beware algorithm then assigns a score and “threat rating” to a person — green, yellow or red. It sends that rating to a requesting officer.

For example, working off a home address, Beware can send an officer basic information about who lives there, their cell phone numbers, whether they have past convictions and the cars registered to the address. Police have had access to this information before, but Beware makes it available immediately.

Yet it does far more — scanning the residents’ online comments, social media and recent purchases for warning signs. Commercial, criminal and social media information, including, as Intrado vice president Steve Reed said in an interview with urgentcomm.com, “any comments that could be construed as offensive,” all contribute to the threat score.

There are many troubling aspects to these programs. There are, of course, obvious risks in outsourcing traditional police work — determining who is a threat — to a proprietary algorithm. Deeming someone a public threat is a serious designation, and applications like Beware may encourage shortcuts and snap decisions.

It is also disconcerting that police would access and evaluate someone’s online presence. What types of comments online will increase a threat score? Will race be apparent?

These questions are impossible to answer because Intrado merely provides the tool — leaving individual police departments to craft specific standards for what information is available and relevant in a threat score. Local departments can fine-tune their own data collection, but then threat thresholds could vary by locale, making oversight nearly impossible.

Tradition holds that justice should be blind, to promote fairness in treatment and avoid prejudgment. With such algorithms, however, police can have significant background information about nearly everyone they pull over or visit at home. Police are time-constrained, and vulnerable populations – such as minorities living in troubled neighborhoods and the poor — may receive more scrutiny.

No one wants the police to remain behind a thick veil of ignorance, but invasive tools like Beware — if left unchecked — may amplify the current unfairness in the system, including racial disparities in arrests and selective enforcement.

Intrado representatives defend Beware’s perceived intrusiveness, pointing out that credit agencies have similar types of information. This data-mining program, however, goes beyond financial records to include social media, purchases and online comments when assigning a rating.

And no system is foolproof. Congress, for example, recognizes the sensitivity of the information that lenders and employers have, because errors can cause serious financial harm. The Fair Credit Reporting Act therefore gives consumers the right to access their credit reports and make corrections.

The risks to life and property, however, are far higher and more unpredictable in the law enforcement context. Yet there is no mechanism for people to see their threat “ratings” — much less why the algorithm scored it. You have no ability to correct errors if, say, someone with the same name has a violent criminal record.

Another effect is that these technologies give law enforcement the ability to routinely monitor obedience to regulatory minutiae and lawmaker whims. Police officers now boast, for example, that the Beware system allows the routine code enforcement of a nanny state — such as identifying homeowners so overgrown trees on a property can be trimmed.

Beware can also encourage fishing expeditions and indiscriminate surveillance in the hopes of finding offenders. Police used Beware recently at a Phish concert in Colorado, for example, checking up on concertgoers based on car license plates.

Perhaps the most serious issue is that such systems may be used as pretext in unconstitutional investigations. John Shiffman and Kristina Cooke reported for Reuters last year that a secretive Drug Enforcement Administration unit regularly funnels information to other law enforcement agencies in order to launch criminal investigations. This information is frequently acquired via intelligence intercepts, wiretaps and informants. As the FirstNet national wireless network rolls out, federal-state coordination will likely increase opportunities for police to receive sensitive information from powerful federal agencies.

Data-mining gives police significantly more information to create reasonable suspicion for suspects that federal agencies flag. Officers could receive a search or arrest warrant with the help of information gleaned from Beware and other databases, like those tracking license plates. If an arrest follows, data-mining helps provide the police with the legal pretext to engage in these fishing expeditions. Defendants will likely have no opportunity to challenge the legality of the original surveillance that led to their arrest.

As predictive policing investment ramps up, and local police and federal agencies increasingly coordinate, more secrecy becomes more valuable. Local police and prosecutors often refuse to disclose how they gain information about defendants because federal agencies prohibit them from discussing these technologies. In Baltimore, for example, police recently dropped evidence against a defendant rather than reveal information about cellphone tracking that the FBI did not want disclosed in court.

Yet police might not acquire some of this equipment if the local community is made fully aware of its use. Consider, the city council of Bellingham, Wash., recently rejected a proposed purchase of Beware. The police department had applied for, and received, a one-time $25,000 federal grant to cover some of the $36,000 annual cost of Beware. At a mandatory hearing about the purchase, Bellingham citizens discovered how Beware worked and opposed the purchase because of both the cost and the privacy implications. The funds were subsequently redirected.

This rejection demonstrates that many modern policing techniques — and the accompanying secrecy — can antagonize the average citizen. The occasional appearance of sniper rifles and military vehicles only stokes that sentiment. Local police forces increasingly receive military surplus equipment and federal lucre from an alphabet soup of U.S. agencies and opportunistic contractors. Now police are using, typically without residents’ knowledge, powerful databases, along with cellphone and license-plate trackers.

Police need guidance about under which circumstances these sophisticated databases can be used. An inaccurate threat level for a residence, after all, can change how police approach a situation. Failure to update who lives at a particular residence, for example, could transform a green rating into a red rating — turning a midday knock on the front door into a nighttime SWAT raid.

 

PHOTO (TOP): Tom Cruise in Minority Report. Courtesy of  20th Century Fox

PHOTO (INSERT ): The dashboard for the New York Police Department’s ‘Domain Awareness System’ is seen in New York, May 29, 2013. REUTERS/Shannon Stapleton

PHOTO (INSERT): Police officers point their weapons at demonstrators protesting against the shooting death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, August 18, 2014. REUTERS/Joshua Lott

 

77 comments

We welcome comments that advance the story through relevant opinion, anecdotes, links and data. If you see a comment that you believe is irrelevant or inappropriate, you can flag it to our editors by using the report abuse links. Views expressed in the comments do not represent those of Reuters. For more information on our comment policy, see http://blogs.reuters.com/fulldisclosure/2010/09/27/toward-a-more-thoughtful-conversation-on-stories/

This is great.

George Orwell would be proud.

The US is a bonafide police state.

Posted by LoveJoyOne | Report as abusive

“Today’s professional police forces — where officers in even one-stoplight towns might have body armor and mine-resistant vehicles — already raise concerns.” Please.

Law enforcement has long used bullet-resistant vests to protect those who routinely must deal with sociopaths logical extra protection. I have yet to see a peaceful individual assaulted by a “mine resistant vehicle”, yet I can see a need if first responders need a safe way in and out of a potential riot situation where have seen standard police cars turned over and set on fire by unrestrained mobs.

“…new data-mining technologies can now provide police with vast amounts of surveillance information and could radically increase police power.” Well, yeah, if that 911 domestic disturbance call is from an address where a felon with outstanding warrants, previously convictions of violent behavior, drug trafficking or unlawful weapons possession, first responders have a legitimate “need to know” everything they can before knocking on that door.

“Policing can be increasingly targeted at specific people and neighborhoods…”. Yes, and that is as it should be. “… — with potentially serious inequitable effects.” So you want the police to have NO advantage over a sociopath who may have just murdered a victim?

“With such algorithms, however, police can have significant background information about nearly everyone they pull over or visit at home. Police are time-constrained, and vulnerable populations – such as minorities living in troubled neighborhoods and the poor — may receive more scrutiny.” Well, duh? “Troubled neighborhoods” are where the majority of crime takes place. To reduce or prevent such crime, it is both appropriate and necessary to devote finite law enforcement resources there.

Personally, I believe law enforcement with more information is less likely to “overrespond” than if they have to assume “worst case” every time they respond to a call.

Posted by OneOfTheSheep | Report as abusive

As we all awake to the new world around us, the challenges we face will and should bring questions about our direction….and they should
Where we some times fail; as in the current examples in OUR news; we need to decide as a Majority of Citizens the choices between what is……….” best ” for us as a whole and what is not….not all will agree.

My son is a lead officer in a very small police department…..a year ago after a case he worked was finished, he asked me if I knew what Dragon Skin was……………..(mind you this was in a small back woods kinda area); I asked him why he asked and who brought the subject up…….his response, is why it is important to have our police a little better armed than the bad guys.

My son wears a ” bullet proof vest ” that is standardly available……a young boy around seven or eight asked him if his vest was as good as Dragon Skin, and continued to state that his uncle has 5 or 6, complete Dragon Skin out fits……the drug dealers and runners have the local police, out armed 10 to 1 and he has no one to turn to…the Fed’s took the person in custody and handled that case; however, do not have the man power or dollars to handle the people, like the uncle; in the community and leave that to the local police.

Do I believe they should have advanced weapons and protection….yes…….do I, or my son believe it should be standard uniform…..no…..do we believe that an officer of the law should be respected …..Yes….AFTER arrest comes the time that any question of injustice can be proven…..arresting someone is not a statement of guilt….it is a process we must ALL respect.

My son, of whom I am very proud, is very respected in his community by everyone, even the people that sometimes may break the law….BECAUSE he respects all people…….we all need to get to that point.

PLEASE can we bring back respect and responsibility and not do it if some one else respects us first, but be First at giving respect and acting responsible…….Please do not misunderstand…..I believe that you should always when possible, start by asking nicely and respectfully……Please don’t Piss on my flower bed……It’s kinda like the third strike….well…. I’ll show you why it’s not a good Idea to piss on my flower bed…….ISIS has pissed on our flower bed !!!

Posted by dpcrocket | Report as abusive

I think I’d be willing to live with more crooks if it meant less police.

Posted by WCTopp | Report as abusive

You are clueless and ignorant if you honestly believe that this technology will allow police to abuse their power. Maybe you should take a ride along with your friendly neighborhood cop and see how they risk their lives everyday for people even so foolish as you who think that they’d do anything other then protect innocents. This technology provides a huge benefit to the safety and welfare of the police and as an extension YOU and the public at large. If a person is a known criminal its good information for the police to have, if that person has made threats or dangerous statements in a public arena like facebook or twitter then there’s no reason ethically or legally that the police shouldn’t be privy to this for their own security. Shame on you for being an ignorant apologist Mr. Skorup, people like you and those who share you attitude put us all at risk.

Posted by millertic | Report as abusive

I’d like to comment on this in detail, but I’m concerned it’ll increase my threat rating. How long before the same tactics are used to misconstrue legitimate political disagreement with being a threat to public safety? “Oh, you don’t like ? You’re a threat. TERRORIST! Pick him up for an all-expenses-paid trip to Gitmo.”

Posted by FallenPhoenix | Report as abusive

BEWARE – comments on this board may be hazardous to your future safety.

Posted by euro-yank | Report as abusive

I’d settle for more crooks if it means we could have fewer police

Posted by WCTopp | Report as abusive

Joseph McCarthy and J Edgar Hoover would be envious of the tools these people have at their disposition now.

Posted by LoveJoyOne | Report as abusive

It would appear here that Reuters is allowing certain authors to allow or deny certain comments.

Posted by OneOfTheSheep | Report as abusive

This author is too limited in real world experience to be credible.

“Today’s professional police forces — where officers in even one-stoplight towns might have body armor and mine-resistant vehicles — already raise concerns.” Please.

Law enforcement has long used bullet-resistant vests to protect those who routinely must deal with sociopaths logical extra protection. I have yet to see a peaceful individual assaulted by a “mine resistant vehicle”, yet I can see a need if first responders need a safe way in and out of a potential riot situation where have seen standard police cars turned over and set on fire by unrestrained mobs.

“…new data-mining technologies can now provide police with vast amounts of surveillance information and could radically increase police power.” Well, yeah, if that 911 domestic disturbance call is from an address where a felon with outstanding warrants, previously convictions of violent behavior, drug trafficking or unlawful weapons possession, first responders have a legitimate “need to know” everything they can before knocking on that door.

“Policing can be increasingly targeted at specific people and neighborhoods…”. Yes, and that is as it should be. “… — with potentially serious inequitable effects.” So you want the police to have NO advantage over a sociopath who may have just murdered a victim?

“With such algorithms, however, police can have significant background information about nearly everyone they pull over or visit at home. Police are time-constrained, and vulnerable populations – such as minorities living in troubled neighborhoods and the poor — may receive more scrutiny.” Well, duh? “Troubled neighborhoods” are where the majority of crime takes place. To reduce or prevent such crime, it is both appropriate and necessary to devote finite law enforcement resources there.

Personally, I believe law enforcement with more information is less likely to “overrespond” than if they have to assume “worst case” every time they respond to a call.

Posted by OneOfTheSheep | Report as abusive

This data mining began with your Sentry and Pick and Save cards many years ago. Although the info collected was initially for product research it was soon sold to insurance companies and law enforcement. Through the products you purchased, police would know , before a raid, if you had a dog, how many people lived with you and their approximate age, how much you drank and of course the insurance companies always knew who smoked whether you told them or not.

Posted by Crysta100 | Report as abusive

For more on the constitutional concerns of big data policing you can read (for free) the forthcoming article Big Data and Predictive Reasonable Suspicion (U.Penn.Law.R). It addresses these issues in greater detail. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?a bstract_id=2394683

Posted by agf | Report as abusive

Please read Sharyl Atkisson’s new book “Stonewalled” to see how far we have already gone down the path toward state tyranny. Read my essay, “Stonewalled in Obama’s Garden of Beasts” if you don’t have time to read her book. Time is late.
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/blogge rs/3230430/posts?page=12

Posted by MattBracken | Report as abusive

As FakeNews further divides our nation into “Good Guys” and “Bad Guys”, we are increasingly at war against ourselves. Then, combine the fear mongering with the profit motive, and for-profit interests will take advantage of the division and propel our nation into that which we have always stood against.

Posted by GeorgeBMac | Report as abusive

Great, let’s not use technology to help the already dangerous job of policing. If you have no past crime or problems with the police then no problem. Today, the criminals are getting more simpathy then the victims. To all the police naysayers, I dare you to just take a walk on nice summers night threw any of our nations high crime cities, your tune will change fast.

Posted by cheeze | Report as abusive

Sounds like life imitating art as usual–Person of Interest…..

The Stazi, KGB and Nazis would be so proud. Now each police department wants to be the CIA. Fascism at its best. Orville was right. The jack booted thugs are winning the fight against democracy. Fahrenheit 451
here we come. Next Cheney will start an enhanced interrogation technique
training course for local police. But let’s call it “HIT” for Hybrid Interrogation Technique. And then they can be called “HIT” men!

Just what I want, some fat out of shape county mounty
having free reign over my personal life.Sounds like innocence before
guilt has been thrown out the window.

Hey, maybe they ought to use this stuff on the cops they hire and those already on the force and our politicians and lobbyists.

We are way to he– in a hand basket regarding individual
freedoms in this country.

Where are there any leaders with any modicum of wisdom?

It sure ain’t in D.C., and most state and local governments.

Posted by doublehelix | Report as abusive

We lived in area where the corruption of the law was a well known and open fact, we had no law only what can be called nearly family rule by old time families that ran everything. Offending them could end up with beating, home torched or jail as new arriveals found out, “Cleansed” was a more proper term.

Many feared the “law” and courts as corrupted, and there was no recoure other then as it was explained to many, “probably best you move on, even a retired sgt from very high crime area in NJ moved out as “never saw anyplace as dangerous as this one”. The thought of these various “officials” having access to any records is absolutely frightening, and they did, with NO control or oversight. and still do not.

Yep, 1984 in the hands of corrupted law and courts.. just what the USA needs, as if the elected are not dirty enough, now this with no oversight, kind of little local CIA’s..
s

Posted by fwrfwr | Report as abusive

Great! I always write in my own name about the criminal conspiracy that has replaced the dead Republic. I really don’t care if they know that I think these misrulers of ours are the people who should really be in jail.

Posted by ChrisHerz | Report as abusive

At some point leaders in the Government are going to have to step in and help return the United States to something resembling what it was before 9-11. Freedom of Speech is being limited. But the good thing about the United States is that if enough people want to really change something, then it can be done. Obama changed jackets with Bush, and that was it. In fact, things are getting worse every day from the point of privacy and accountability and open government. But the US is flexible and there is hope that we can stop the slide towards having a Gestapo and losing Freedom of Speech. A militarized and NSA-like police force (meaning they lie to us all the time) is not what America needs.

Posted by Cleveland2012 | Report as abusive

1) Body armor – yes, of course. Would you rather we not wear body armor and die when shot?
2) Mine Resistant vehicles – military surplus. SWAT teams use these during tactical operations to protect officers. They are not equipped with canons – they are armored to protect against gunfire. Some departments purchase APC’s designed for law enforcement that are armored, but not mine resistant (and a lot smaller and more fuel efficient). Military surplus are mine resistant because they went were mines were.
3) Dispatchers notifying officers of a potentially hostile call location – officer safety. Better officers know what potentially may confront them than to be blind sided.
4) Social media – you mean posts anyone can see? This isn’t protected information – it is public domain.
5) This isn’t going to hold water in a court if it is entered into evidence. It is only for officer safety, and to draw a picture of potential suspects.

Posted by DallasCop | Report as abusive

cheeze:

It’s a myth that policing is dangerous. It’s not even in the top ten list of most dangerous jobs. Police have body armor, openly-carried guns, and an army of backup just a radio call away. That’s why in a nation with hundreds of thousands of cops, only a hundred or so die each year — and many of these aren’t even from violence, but from car accident, heart attack, etc.

It’s more dangerous to be a private citizen than a cop in any city in the country, and cops pose more of a threat to innocent citizens than criminals pose to cops.

Even if policing were especially dangerous, that wouldn’t give law enforcement the right to violate citizens’ privacy or other civil liberties. This is supposed to be America, not the Soviet Union. Technology is fine if it’s used to uphold laws that protect people and property, but it is NOT okay to use it for wholesale prying into the lives of citizens who aren’t suspected of wrongdoing.

I’m so tired of this ridiculous argument: “We should allow [such-and-such violation of rights] because it makes the job of law enforcement easier.” Allowing random searches of our homes, body-cavity searches on the street, and just doing away with the Bill of Rights altogether would also make police work easier. But police work is only easy in a police state. Go move to one if that’s what you seek.

Posted by Heretic50 | Report as abusive

Lucky Bellingham having Community oversight. In the UK there is no such thing, only after the event.
It is unfortunate that the public bodies who police our societies appear to be more and more distant and at war with the public. The result of the more intrusive information collection systems drives this gap. That the trivia of your life could be used as evidence to prosecute brings a new level of information to light which many people would think should remain private.
Authorities can push this as far as they like, but beware the wrath of a recalcitrant society.
As the French king said to his butler, “What’s that noise? Is it a revolt?”
“No Sir, its a revolution.”

Posted by oldcat | Report as abusive

Everyone is complaining about the police now. Yes, they make mistakes. Here’s something much, much worse than human error:
“outsourcing traditional police work — determining who is a threat — to a proprietary algorithm”.

Posted by EllieK | Report as abusive

So crime levels have been dropping for the last couple of decades and somebody has decided in secret that the US has suddenly become much more dangerous, so cops need tanks and machine guns to do their duties.

I think people who believe we need a police state are not just wrong, they are a menace to the rest of us. I believe my freedom is more important than your hysterical fear. Our country has gone to war to defend our freedoms, and a few horrible little fear mongers would have us throw it all away because they can’t sleep at night for fear of what is lurking under their bed. What children!

I think it was Ben Franklin who said people who would give up their freedom for a little security don’t deserve freedom or security. How right he was. You can take your police state and go live in hell where you belong.

Now go away so America can be free again, and take your up-armored “police” with you.

Posted by Lufteufel | Report as abusive

Violent crime is down, and has been trending lower for a couple of decades. Yet some people are even more fearful of crime than ever before, and think our police need tanks and machine guns to do their jobs.

Some people are cowards who would sell us down the river for fear of what is hiding under their bed. As is attributed to Ben Franklin, “those who would give up their freedom for a little security deserve neither freedom or security”. Truer words have never been spoken.

Posted by Lufteufel | Report as abusive

Yes but information is only as good as the people who use it. Computers are getting more sophisticated but hiring standards are falling. Especially with diversity programs the quality of police officers is getting truly pathetic. I’m sure many of these policemen are nice guys who just need a job, but the Government sucks. The Government is going from bad to worse as the criminals get more brazen in their abuse of the system. As corruption spreads the more the quality of recruits in the system erodes. Even superintelligent computers cannot eliminate human error.

Posted by DrDoom | Report as abusive

which is precisely why you should ONLY use a fictional username and bogus pic whenever you put ANYTHING only. and connect using a secure/private VPN.

Posted by mackendw | Report as abusive

OneOfTheSheep- you truly are what your name suggests, happily incrementally handing over autonomy from the people to the government as the perceived threat levels increase until the perceived threats have looted your freedom completely in the name of safety, always believing in the ambivalent government is there to keep you safe at night while you sleep.

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