MOSCOW – There’s a joke in Europe, the making of which is credited to Lord Chris Patten, Chancellor of Oxford University who in the 1980s was the EU’s Commissioner for External Relations. Adapting President Theodore Roosevelt’s advice to “speak softly but carry a big stick,” Patten said that the EU’s attitude to foreign affairs was to “speak softly but carry a big carrot.”
Collectively, Europe must exercise influence through “soft power.” The concept was invented by Joseph Nye, the Harvard political scientist, who, in his 2004 book “Soft Power,” defined it as the power to influence other countries without force or money. Instead, soft power draws people to it who, by “admiring its values, emulating its example, aspiring to its level of prosperity and openness — want to follow it.”
U.S. soft power has suffered in the past decade because the hard kind has been so prevalent. But it has not disappeared. It draws people to it still. The EU has had nothing but soft power. The “big carrot” is its ability to have others “aspire to its level,” economic or otherwise, accompanied by the promise of financial assistance. Yet Patten’s joke carries a rueful recognition that this may be a less-than-realistic approach to a hard world.
It is a testament to soft power that hundreds of thousands of people have come out in Ukraine to express their desire for an agreement that will bring them closer to the EU. Now vast protests are mounted against the Yanukovich regime, calling for (as some of the placards have said) living in a “normal” country with the rule of law. The European “carrot” isn’t just the money it disburses to its poorer members; it is also the promise, to people who increasingly wish to call themselves “European,” of raising standards — from the quality of food to the honesty of politicians. It’s a classic case of “aspiring to a level” that other neighbors have attained.
Ukraine, once the second-largest state in the Soviet Union, was the foundation of what became the Russian and then the Soviet empire. It was also the cradle of the Eastern Orthodox religion. Yet now the rhetoric of the opposition is strongly anti-Russian.