By Lawrence H. Summers
The opinions expressed are his own.

At last Washington has reached a deal that raises the debt limit and averts a default that would have been a national embarrassment and an economic and geopolitical catastrophe.   The forces shaping the deal and the deal itself are multifaceted–and so is the right reaction to it.  Mine has a number of elements.

Relief. There will be no first default in U.S. history; no economy-damaging short-run austerity; no attack on the nation’s core social protection programs or on universal health care; and no repeat of the last month’s shabby spectacle for at least 15 months.  All of this was in doubt even a week ago as Congressional intransigence threatened to make the problem of acceptably raising the debt limit insoluble.  The Hippocratic Oath applies in economics as well as medicine and so it is no small thing for the Administration to have reached an agreement  that does no immediate harm.  It may well be that no better agreement was achievable given the political dynamics in Congress.

Cynicism. An objective observer would predict larger U.S. budget deficits in the outyears than he or she would have predicted a few months ago.  The economic forecast has deteriorated (see chart below), and it is reasonable to estimate that even a half-a-percent reduction growth averaged over 10 years adds well over a trillion dollars to the national debt in 2021.

Despite claims of spending reductions in the $1 trillion range, the actual agreements reached so far likely will have little impact on actual spending over the next decade.   The deal confirms the very low levels of spending already negotiated for 2011 and 2012, and caps 2013 spending about where most would have expected this Congress to end up.  Beyond that outcomes are anyone’s guess—the reality is that Congress votes discretionary spending  annually and the current Congress cannot effectively constrain future actions.  True, there are caps and sequester threats present in the debt limit legislation, but these are virtually certain to be reformulated in 2013 so the reality was and still is that discretionary spending going forward will largely reflect the will of future Congresses.

Remarkably for a matter so consequential the agreement that the Supercommittee will seek to reduce the deficit by $1.5 trillion comes without any agreement on what the baseline is from which the $1.5 trillion is to be subtracted.  Is the $1.5 trillion from a baseline that includes or excludes the Bush tax cuts? Includes or excludes tax extenders and the annual AMT fix?  These and other similar questions are unresolved at this moment.