The Government Accountability Office published a report estimating the economic advantages and costs Puerto Rico would have if it enters statehood. The biggest cost would be that Puerto Rico citizens would be required to pay federal income tax on their domestic earnings. Currently they pay federal income tax on income they earn outside of Puerto Rico.
The GAO estimates that If Puerto Rico had been a state in 2010, the estimated income tax paid by individual taxpayers would have ranged from $ 2.2 to $ 2.3 billion. The report also estimates changes in federal entitlement benefits that would flow to the island. In many cases there would be additional federal funds for the island.
The critical piece of the puzzle would be the change in income taxes for Puerto Rico corporations and subsidiaries of U.S. corporations that do business on the island. These corporations are a big contributor to Puerto Rico general fund revenues. Puerto Rico corporations are currently treated as foreign corporations under U.S. tax law. Here is what the report says (page 115):
Now, here is where Microsoft comes in:
Based in Humacao, Puerto Rico, Microsoft Operations Puerto Rico (MOPR) is responsible for producing all optical media sold by Microsoft in the Americas. This fast-growing complex has a complement of 250 employees and produces 250,000 disks a day.
El Nuevodia lays out what this means:
In 2012, the Senate Chairman of the Subcommittee on Investigations, Democrat Carl Levin (Michigan), presented a report stating that between 2009 and 2011, Microsoft was able to keep out of the hands of the U.S. Treasury about $21 billion by transferring certain property rights to their intellectual subsidiary in Puerto Rico.