Pakistan is not Egypt (and it hasn’t had a coup)

June 20, 2012

One of the risks of the deteriorating situation inside Pakistan and its worsening relations with the outside world is the temptation to box it into a manageable category to make it less bewildering. Thus this week,  the disqualification of Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani by the Supreme Court was widely described as a “judicial coup” – an evocation of the many military interventions in Pakistan since its creation in 1947 – and from there it became easy to compare it to the reassertion of military power in Egypt .  By then we were but a hop, skip and a jump away from Pakistan’s definition as a failed state.

But Pakistan is not a failed state. It is perhaps better described, as columnist Doctor Mohammad Taqi said on Twitter, by what in medicine would be considered “a long term acute patient…like a successful failed state”. The disqualification of the prime minister will not lead to the collapse of the democratic system in Pakistan – rather the ruling Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) will choose a new prime minister and limp on to elections due by early next year.

And Pakistan is not Egypt. Unlike Egypt, Pakistan’s civilian politicians have had years of experience of trying to assert themselves over the powerful military.  Squabbling between politicians created the space for repeated overthrows of civilian governments in the past, culminating most recently in a military coup in 1999.  They have learned from their mistakes. Former prime minister and opposition leader Nawaz Sharif was himself overthrown in that 1999 coup; he has recently become one of the country’s most outspoken critics of the army and would be wary of derailing the democratic process to the extent that it would open the door for a military takeover. Meanwhile, the Pakistan Army itself has shown no inclination to run the country, though it continues to dominate foreign and security policy.

So be wary of labels, and easy categories.  Or as Jay Ulfelder wrote about Egypt, “the labels we choose should reflect our thinking about the nature of the process involved and the historical cases to which we might usefully compare it. I don’t think we can figure out what to call…events (in Egypt) without first choosing a conceptual framework to characterize the larger change process in which those events are embedded.”

How then are we to describe what is happening in Pakistan? In 2007, long before the Arab Spring, a popular movement forced then Pakistan ruler Pervez Musharraf to restore sacked Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry.  The judiciary has since then been taking an increasingly independent line. It has its battles with the PPP (whose founder Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was sentenced to death by a court) and many have accused it of applying justice selectively to target the ruling party.  Rightly or wrongly, its decision to disqualify Gilani was widely seen as a response to corruption allegations made against the Chief Justice’s son (an earlier ruling in April – before those allegations emerged – convicted Gilani of contempt of court but left it to parliament to decide his fate.)

But- and this is crucial – the Supreme Court has also been challenging the army by demanding investigations into the many missing persons who have disappeared over the years into suspected military custody.  What we are seeing in Pakistan today is not the judiciary siding with the military to do its bidding against a civilian government, but rather the emergence of   a new power centre which is messy, unsatisfactory, and to many Pakistanis, not far enough above the political fray, but nonetheless far more independent than it was a decade ago.

The popular fight over the judiciary in 2007 eventually forced Musharraf to step down and allowed the PPP to take power in democratic elections.  Before his disqualification, Gilani had become the longest-serving elected prime minister in Pakistan’s history.  The coalition government he led has survived through a perfect storm of global economic recession, disastrous floods, Islamist bombings and the faltering U.S.-led war in Afghanistan, all compounded by the PPP’s own deficiencies in governance and corruption. 

President Asif Ali Zardari, co-leader of the PPP and widower of the late Benazir Bhutto, has surprised everyone in his capacity to not only survive but outfox the army in the perennial battle for power in Pakistan.  Accusations of treason against his ambassador to Washington, Husain Haqqani, in the so-called Memogate scandal were fought to a stalemate earlier this year. The government has begun still-fragile peace talks with India, opening up trade and undercutting the need for a security state which since Pakistan’s inception in 1947 has allowed (some say required) the military to predominate. And perhaps most importantly, it has begun to devolve power to the provinces in a direct challenge to the centralising authority of  the military.  Whatever happens in Pakistan in future, that Pakistani version of perestroika will not be forgotten. And for the first time in Pakistan’s history, the idea of democratic rule also appears to have some genuine support in the United States.

Far from facing a coup, the choice before the PPP now is whether after naming a new prime minister it should hang on until elections in February, or hold early polls in the hope of using the “martyr card” to convince voters that it had been unfairly targetted by the Supreme Court.  Elections next year would give it time to stabilise the economy  – requiring an end to the standoff with the United States and an agreement with the International Monetary Fund – and to ease the energy crisis which, at a time of intense protests over load-shedding, is currently Pakistan’s biggest problem. Early polls would have the advantage of  putting a caretaker government in place which could take responsibility for repairing ties with the United States in a politically unpopular deal which nobody in Pakistan wants to own. So far Zardari has said he will wait for elections next year. Whatever the outcome, compared to previous civilian administrations in Pakistan, the current government is facing the luxury of choice.

That is not to suggest all is well in Pakistan.  Apart from the load-shedding, the economic crisis, the government/judiciary row, the Islamist militancy and the standoff with the United States, Pakistan also faces a growing challenge to the writ of state – between a separatist rebellion in Balochistan province and war in its Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) bordering Afghanistan. It has an increasingly poor record on human rights and protection of minorities. Critics of the army say the space for civil society is shrinking rather than growing – for them the so-called Deep State is reasserting itself by other means, including through the Difa-e-Pakistan Islamist alliance.

It is a mess, and an unpredictable mess at that. But there is a process underway, of democratisation and of a distribution of power across different stakeholders (whether these be the army, the government, the opposition, the judiciary or the multiple non-state actors.)  Labelling Pakistan as a country still vulnerable to a coup, albeit a judicial one, ignores that diffusion of power. And comparing it to Egypt, which has only very recently tried to escape from authoritarian rule,  is to set Pakistan back at least 20 years – if indeed the comparison of two such different countries was ever valid.

This point is about more than mere pedantry. A misdiagnosis would be dangerous at a time when impatience is running so high – particularly in the United States – that some would rather write Pakistan off altogether.  To extend the metaphor, the potential cure from that misdiagnosis could be akin to chopping off a patient’s legs to treat a virus.  The process of change in Pakistan is as yet imperfectly understood and often comes down to guesswork. But Pakistan is not Egypt, and it has not just had a coup.

(Reuters file photo of a demonstration in April after Gilani’s contempt of court conviction.)


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Myra lies again. Nawaz Sharif was leading the charge on the Supreme Court’s prosecution of corruption charges against Gilani, and was demanding that Gilani step down: Gilani-should-resign-immediately:-Nawaz  /22821/Gilani-should-have-resigned-on-c onviction-day-Nawaz.aspx ccept-gilani-as-pm-says-nawaz/

Myra MacDonald is peddling fiction and fabrications of her own making, and then presenting them as “facts”.

What’s a “successful failed state”? An oxymoron.

Posted by san-man | Report as abusive

Certainly the army wants to continue ruling Pakistan from the shadows, even though it can’t afford to take power overtly, since Pakistan is in a terminal slide to self-destruction. That’s why even as the courts prosecute Gilani, the military uses its unlimited wiretapping powers and its minions to stir up charges against supreme court justices.

Posted by san-man | Report as abusive

Pakistani people look towards the judiciary as a ray of hope, rule of law and justice are the pillars of a peaceful, functioning and prospering society. If Pakistan has to succeed as a state it has to ensure justice for all. The devolution of power itself is a good thing, the Army also has to keep supporting the democratic process and interact more with civilian leaders. Only when all the stakeholders stick together and find solutions can Pakistan navigate through the mess it finds itself in.

Posted by Umairpk | Report as abusive

A ruling on the missing person case related to the army might clear the position of SC, weather SC is acting on the good intentions of ridding the country from corrupt leaders or acting on the behest of Army, bureaucracy or who ever. An independent judiciary doesnt mean its independent only when making ruling against polititians.

Posted by Shers2000 | Report as abusive

You wrote,
It has an increasingly poor record on human rights and protection of minorities.”

Well for someone like you who shamelessly defends atrocious use of drone attacks on defenseless women and kids these subjects should not be any of your concerns.

“And comparing it to Egypt, which has only very recently tried to escape from authoritarian rule, is to set Pakistan back at least 20 years – if indeed the comparison of two such different countries was ever valid”

This one sentence alone is enough to convince me that you actually know very little about any of these country.These 2 countries resemble each other more than any other pair of countries in the world,and in more ways than you can ever imagine.

“Whatever the outcome, compared to previous civilian administrations in Pakistan, the current government is facing the luxury of choice.”

Well the bad news for you is this zardari led NRO tainted PPP government will not only be utterly crushed in next elections,but PPP is almost certainly never going to come back in power in centre again.
So dismal they have been on all fronts.
It will be death of the last remaining Pro-America slavish element in pakistani society.
This is the problem with you because apart from few random English columnist who have no following in general public You seem totally ignorant of ground realities here.
Whichever party will next come in power Whether it,s PMLN or PTI will have to adopt much more anti America stance for their survival,simply because such is there constituency.

And perhaps you will get your wish that why Pakistani army does not shoot down drones.It will be quite an embarrassment for Americans for sure.

Pakistan IS very much Egypt

Posted by ZADAR | Report as abusive


It’s funny that you think the Army supports the democratic process. They don’t. You think they want to let the masses have free reign over their destiny? That’s cute.


I once met Stephen Cohen. He described Pakistan as a “perpetually failing state”. Never Somalia. But never far from becoming Somalia. A better term than a “successful failed state” I suppose.

50 years ago, one might have looked at India askance. Today, it’s Pakistan. You want to know the future of the country? Look at the education stats. Nothing tells you more about the long term destiny of a country than how it treats and raises its children. Primary participation in Pakistan should tell you all you need to know about where Pakistan will be in 15 years.

The instability we are seeing today is the tip of the iceberg. You have a massive demographic wave coming, a solid quarter or more of whom are likely to be functionally illiterate. Combine that with hate spewing mullahs, a mismanaged economy, a massive miltiary sector that sucks the wind out of the economy, and you start to get a picture of where this Titani is heading…..

Posted by True.North. | Report as abusive

Umair. This is the state of Pakistan: eal-enemy/

Posted by True.North. | Report as abusive

Not approving!No courage?

Posted by ZADAR | Report as abusive


You are just brilliant; all along moving with your fine intellect to feel the pulse of Pakistan Nation. Bhuttos and Zardari have all along been the pain in the Arsch of the country. Pakistani military groomed them, dethroned them and then groomed them but like a terrier Dog they do not let loose of the country. This time they got into the civilian presidency on account of a shabby deal brokered by the USA administration among Pakistan political ladership and the military converted civilian military dictator, keeping Judiciary and the country’s interests at bay. Hence the Talibans inroads into the country, ready to intervene with full force in the whole of Pakistan. Given the situation Pakistan was faced with, there were not many alternatives. Either the civilian leadership deliver and protect its sovereignty, prosecute the corrupt and criminal officials currently occupying the highest offices or once again a military take over. The judiciary intervened at the request of the military and civilian leadership and declared Gillani as the illegal occupant of the office after the indictment of “contempt of court”. The Chief Justice could have declared the desolution of the Parliament as well who had earlier refused to withdraw the immunity of Mr Gillani so as to allow Prosecution investigations.

Pakistan political leadershiphas been give a breathing space to sort out the mess they have created within and with their relatons with outsie world including that with the USA. A military intervention is unlikely to be a Deja vu of the past, the young army Turks are going to move with the Iron Fist and to finish the job which in previous coups was left unfinished.

Pakistan desperately needs a revolutionary civilian leadership so as to remove the footprints of the foreigners from Pakistan soil, since their presence is the guarantor of instability in the region.

Rex Minor

Posted by pakistan | Report as abusive

True.North said:

> You want to know the future of the country? Look at the education stats. Nothing tells you more about the long term destiny of a country than how it treats and raises its children. Primary participation in Pakistan should tell you all you need to know about where Pakistan will be in 15 years.

Don’t forget the polio menace. The jihadists have begun to oppose polio vaccinations for children in the tribal areas. Within 5 years, the region could see regular polio epidemics that strike down a whole generation of innocent kids. It will ultimately deprive the jihadists of fresh foot-soldiers, and the islamist insurgency will probably end in the most pathetic way imaginable, with the innocents being the victims as always.

Ganesh Prasad

Posted by prasadgc | Report as abusive

Non sense, and ignorance pure! The vaccine is a poison itself and carries the risk to childs life without the polio infection. If the children are keot clean then there is a less risk of infection. Besides UNO has proven to be unreliable andperhaps have the intention to collect DNA of Pashtun children? We refused to vaccinate our child at Mexico city airport and were able to convince the Doctor that it is not necessary unless there is an all out epidemic.

Rex Minor

Posted by pakistan | Report as abusive

The iPhone was missing a significant video camera and its particular the processor is lower versus the additional cell phones, however ?t had been successful! Why does you consider iPad’s going to reduce? . -= sebin’s continue website… Crank up your own apple ipad tablet with the Apps! =-.

Posted by Merlene Nazzal | Report as abusive