Max Chafkin has a fantastic story in Inc magazine about how to structure an economy so as to encourage entrepreneurship, full employment, and general happiness and contentment, all while drastically reducing inequality. It's easy, in fact: all you need to do is become Norway.
There's loads of great stuff in this piece, and I'd encourage you to read the whole thing. But a few things stand out.
Chafkin starts with the tale of Wiggo Dalmo, an industrial mechanic with a high-school education who chafed under his bosses, set up his own shop, and is now running a $44 million company with 150 employees. That's the kind of story which should be common in the US but is in fact rare. But ask yourself: in the US, how much would such a person be paying in taxes? Dalmo paid $102,970 in personal taxes on his income and wealth last year, which is probably lower, not higher, than the CEO of a $44 million company would pay in taxes in the US.
The reason is that there's much less income inequality in Norway. With a strong social safety net, the downside to starting a company and failing is small. As a result, entrepreneurship isn't a lottery, so much as a lifestyle choice. If you succeed, you'll get to run a large and successful corporation. But you probably won't pay yourself a monster income.
Why not? Well, for one thing, you won't need to pay yourself a monster income, since things like healthcare and college education -- even through grad school, even outside the country -- are covered by the state. Another part of the reason is that income, in Norway, is a matter of public record. And then there's the fact that money which would otherwise be going to the top of the pyramid is instead going to the bottom, where it does much more good: